English language (1)


Nile College 

English Language Unit

English language (1)

Eng 115



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Learning Foreign Languages 

   Learning a foreign language is not a matter of reading some grammar rules and memorizing some vocabulary words– although those are important activities, not to be ignored. Acquiring a language is learning a skill, not a body of information. It’s as much like learning to swim or ride a bike as it is like learning about the River Nile. That is, you must not only understand the ideas and concepts, have information at hand, but you must also make your body accustomed to using that information in physical activity: in this case the physical activity involved is speaking, listening, writing and reading.

You need, then, not only to memorize and understand, but also to practice!

Here are a few brief suggestions on effective practice/study techniques.

  1. Make your mouth or hand do what your mind is learning. Study out loud. Study with a friend, thus involving yourself in speaking and listening. Try to write sentences or a short paragraph using the skills you have practiced orally.

If you study by reading silently, you draw only upon your visual memory.

If you study out loud, you double your efficiency by adding auditory memory and you make your mouth work, helping with pronunciation and speech.

Augment your learning potential even further by writing what you have read and spoken.

  1. Study day-by-day. You cannot get by in a foreign language course by cramming at the last minute. You may be able to `learn’ vocabulary items that way, but you cannot teach your mouth to use them in sentences. (Can you cram for a swimming test ?)
  2. Occasionally go back and review `old’ topics and vocabulary. Language learning is cumulative. You learn new skills on the basis of old ones. The more you `recycle’ familiar information and skills, the better you will be able to integrate new ones.

Instructors usually present and test new language skills in a somewhat segmented, chapter-by-chapter approach, as a matter of administrative convenience. However, actual learning is not segmented at all, but cumulative. You add new information and skills to the old without superseding them. Your instructor will incorporate `old’ information and vocabulary in the presentation of new skills; you will benefit from doing the same thing when you study. (For example, practice new grammar concepts with familiar vocabulary.)

  1. Don’t be afraid to make mistakes. Self-consciousness can be a mighty obstacle to learning a language. Perhaps part of the reason small children readily acquire languages is that they are not afraid of making mistakes.

If you are prepared to goof from time to time, or even frequently, you’ll feel much less restraint in practicing and trying to speak.

 Task  One

Based on the above passage, decide if the following statements are true or false:

1-            The main topic of the above passage is language learning.

2-            You can master a language by focusing only on learning the rules of its grammar.

3-            Making mistakes is a bad habit in language learning.

4-            ‘Goof” –underlined – means making mistakes.


Arthritis and rheumatism

                  Inflammation                     Strike         Dense       Hipbone      Deteriorate      Arthritis

                Predominantly                     Swell          Brittle              Lens          Porous          Approximate

                     Primarily                         Shrink      Opaque         Degeneration                          Stiff  

  Arthritis and rheumatism are general names for approximately 100 diseases that produce inflammation or degeneration of connective tissue. Some of these diseases are infectious and primarily affect younger people. Rheumatic fever, for example, is a bacterial infection that occurs mostly in children or teenagers. Rheumatoid arthritis predominantly strikes women between 20 and 60. However, the most common rheumatic disease is a noninfectious, non inflammatory degenerative joint disease – osteoarthritis. To some degree, it affects nearly all older adults, causing swelling, pain, and stiffness in joints. Treatment may include heat, exercises, and drugs that reduce pain and inflammation.

Besides osteoarthritis, many other noninfectious diseases can limit the activities of the elderly. Osteoporosis (a condition in which bone loss exceeds bone replacement so that the bones become less dense, more porous, and more brittle) often leads to fractures, especially of the hipbone. Many conditions conspire to decrease the sensory perception of the elderly. Cataracts are created when the lens of the eye – or a portion of it – becomes opaque and sometimes swells or shrinks and interferes with vision. Deterioration of nerves in the inner ear causes the characteristic old-age hearing loss, most severe in the high-pitched tones. The senses of taste and smell also deteriorate in old age..

Exercise 1. Complete each sentence with the suitable word:

  1. The journey took ………………………. seven hours.
  2. Her arm was beginning to ………………… up where the bee had stung her.
  3. My ………………… shrank in the wash
  4. Her health ……………………… rapidly and she died shortly afterwards.
  5. She stood with her hands on her ……………………………………


Exercise 2  Match the words to their meanings

1. opaque ::              a. a disease that causes pain and swelling in one or more joints of the body

2. dense :                  b. having many small holes that allow water or air to pass through slowly:

3.Degeneration:    c. containing a lot of people, things, plants, etc. with little space between them:

4. Arthritis:              d. not clear enough to see through or allow light through

5.porous :                e.  the process of becoming worse or less acceptable in quality or condition:

Exercise 3    Make questions

1 Now Last year Ten years ago
My grandfather Arthritis Hipbone Stiff leg
Ahmed Ali stiff neck  Swelling in his eye breakfast 
The nurse inflammation of the ear Arthritis Throat inflammation

For example:

  1. What has Ahmed got?


  1. What has the nurse got last year?


  1. ……………………………………………………………………………………


  1. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..………………………..….
  3. …………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 4.  Identify the odd word and the reason:

  1. Arthritis – rheumatism – Malaria                 a. it is the opposite of the others
  2. inflammation- dehydration- degeneration    b. it is a verb
  3. Interferes with vision- swelling- pain          c. It not a sign of arthritis 
  4. fragile- brittle -strong                                  d. a disease that doesn’t strike bones 
  5. occur-  primarily approximately                 e. it is not a sumptuous of osteoarthritis         

Exercise 5 crosswords



  1. a disease that causes pain and swelling in one or more joints of the body
  2. hard but easily broken
  3. having many small holes that allow water or air to pass through slowly:
  4. a harmless substance given to a sick person instead of medicine, without telling them it is not real
  5. almost correct or accurate, but not completely so; not exact:
  6. to become worse, or less active for example by becoming lower in quality or weaker:
  7. to hit sb/sth hard or with force

A. Answer True or False to the following statements:
1. Rheumatic fever is a viral infection.
2. Osteoporosis is the most common arthritic disease.
3. Elderly people’s senses are less acute than when they were younger.
4. Cataracts are transparent.
5. Three terms associated with osteoporosis are dense, porous and brittle.

B. Please complete the following sentences by choosing the most correct term (s):
1. Osteoarthritis is an example of a/an ___________ disease
     a) infectious                    b) incurable           c) noninfectious                                                                                                                        2. A condition in which bone loss exceeds bone replacement is called ______________
    a) rheumatoid arthritis         b) osteoporosis      c) rheumatism                                                              3. As mentioned in this article, sensory perception of the elderly relates to ___________:
   a) sight, hearing and touch      b) taste, smell and hearing             c) hearing, smell, taste and sight                                                                                                       4. ______________ primarily affects younger people, while rheumatoid arthritis predominantly strikes ___________ between the ages of 20 and 60.
     a) Rheumatic fever; women         b) Osteoporosis; hearing loss          c) Cataracts; males



















Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation


Survive             Pamphlet     Circulation     Blow               Cardio          Suffer         Resuscitate

Arrest               Certificate     Tilt                Procedures    Pulmonary     Attack        Compress


1. You are walking down the street. Suddenly, you see someone fall to the ground, unable to breathe and holding his chest. What should you do? Your actions in those important first minutes could save a life.

2. When someone suffers a heart attack, he stops breathing and his heartbeat stops or is irregular.  Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that can mean the difference between life and death. CPR involves two main processes. The first is resuscitation, which requires you to blow air into the victim’s mouth. You can help prevent brain damage by blowing air into the mouth, and therefore into the lungs. It also allows more time for you to re-start the victim’s heart. The second is chest compressions to keep blood circulating around the body.

3. To do CPR, just remember your A-B-Cs. After calling for help, carefully lay the victim on his back and start with step A. ‘A’ stands for airway. Tilt the victim’s head back and see if he is breathing. If he is not, continue to step B. ‘B’ is for breathing. Hold the victim’s nose closed and blow two long breaths into his mouth. You should see his chest move up and down. Then move on to step C, blood circulation, beginning with chest compressions. Push down just below the victim’s breast bone, above the stomach. Do 100 compressions per 60 seconds.  Stop after 30 compressions and give two breaths to the victim. By following these steps, blood and oxygen will flow to the body’s major organs.

4. Of course, this is just a brief description of CPR. If you want further information about CPR and certification, you should contact hospitals, government agencies, or schools. You can also get pamphlets and videos about other health-related emergencies there. In some community centres, you can take a course in the important skill of CPR.

5. At least one member of every family should be able to do CPR in emergency situations. Almost 80% of cardiac arrest victims fall ill at home, with family members nearby. Sadly, less than 7% of them survive, partly because no one there knows the three steps of CPR.  Remember, saving a life is as easy as A-B-C

 Exercise 1. Complete each sentence with the suitable word:

  1. A child is recovering in hospital after a serious …………………… by a stray dog.
  2. Health workers based in the ………………………………..
  3. She …………………………. her lips
  4. Regular exercise will improve blood ………………………………….
  5. The policeman asked me to …………………………….. into the breathalyser.

Exercise 2  What is the connection between each pair of words?

  1. Pamphlet & Certificate           a. they are verbs
  2. Pulmonary & Blow                      b. have direct relation with blood
  3. Survive & Resuscitate                 c. both of them have close relation with air
  4. Circulation & Cardio                  d. they are made of papers
  5. Suffer & Arrest                         e. they are the opposite of death


Exercise 3  Match the words to their meanings

  1. Procedures              a. an act of using violence to try to hurt or kill sb         
  2. Tilt.                           b. to continue to live or exist
  3. Attack                    c. to move, or make sth move, into a position with one side or end higher

                                       than the other  

  1. Resuscitate             d. a way of doing sth, especially the usual or correct way
  2. Survive                    e. to make sb start breathing again or become conscious again after they 

                                           have almost died:                                                                                                                             

Exercise 4  For example:

  1. What is the first step in the CPR?


  1. ……………………………………………………………………………………


  1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..….
  3. …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 5.         crosswords



  1. A very thin book with a paper cover, containing information about a particular subject
  2. To press or squeeze sth together or into a smaller space a spoken or written answer
  3. Connected with the lungs
  4. To become or to make sth greater in amount, number, value, etc
  5. Ways of doing sth, especially the usual or correct way
  6. Connected with the heart
  7. To continue to live or exist
  8. A scientific test that is carried out in order to study what happens and to gain new knowledge:
  9. To be badly affected by a disease, pain, sadness, a lack of sth, etc

10.  Either of the two round soft parts at the front of a woman’s body that produce milk when she has had a baby




Circle the best choice:

1. A heart attack is when _______________.

  a) a person feels irregular      b) a victim breathes faster

  c) the heart stops beating      d) blood flows around the body

2. What are the processes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation?

  a) calling for help and holding the nose  b) resuscitation and compressions

  c) helping to prevent brain damage        d) blowing air into mouth and lungs 

3. In paragraph 2, which refers to _______________.

  a) CPR     b) blow air    c) two processes    d) resuscitation

4. In paragraph 3, the word tilt means _______________.

  a) move     b) touch      c) check                   d) breathe

5. How many times should you push below the victim’s breast bone in one minute?

  a) 2           b) 30             c) 60                        d) 100

6. According to the text, to perform CPR, _______________.

  a) first help breathing; then circulate blood; and finally clear airway

  b) clear the airway first; then help breathing; and finally circulate blood

  c) circulate blood; second, help breathing; and then clear airway

  d) clear airway; second, circulate blood; and third, help breathing

 7. You should go to a community centre if you want_______.

  a) a certificate  b) a brief description  c) to learn CPR           d) pamphlets and videos

 8. In paragraph 5, them refers to _______________.

 a) family members              b) emergency situations

 c) cardiac arrest victims     d) three steps of CPR

 9. Paragraph _______________ is the best place to put the sentence, ‘If a brother, sister or parent knows CPR, they might be able to prevent an unnecessary death.’?

      a) 1                   b) 2              c) 3                 d) 5 

10. This passage could be titled ________________

    a) CPR       b) CRP        c) RCP        d) PCR













Health in America.

When Americans go abroad, one of their biggest concerns is, “Can you drink the water?” You may find asking yourself the same question, especially in a hip, urban setting where you may notice many people, young and old, drinking from large and small plastic bottles. And these people will tell you, fiercely to put the fear of God in you, that “No! You cannot drink the tap water in this country anymore!” Ignore these people. These are the same kind of people who will also inform you that you will drop dead before 40, or worse, become ugly fat, and stupid if you don’t jog or join an expensive health club where you pay to sweat. Now simply turn the tap water and drink long and deep to quench your thirst. Do not be surprised the next morning if you still feel healthy and energetic.

Unless you come from a country, or stopped over in one, where dreaded diseases such as cholera, malaria, yellow or dengue fever are a fact of daily life, you do not need inoculations to enter America.

Availability of certain drugs are also restricted. What you have been able to get at your neighborhood pharmacy in your country may require a doctor’s prescription. So if you take medications, (e.g., for blood pressure or cholesterol), you must find an American doctor who can prescribe them for you. Or bring extra enough to last during your stay.


1. Match the following words to the suitable definition or synonym (2 points).

Concern Tap Jog Sweat Quench Dreaded Neighbourhood


  Satisfy by drinking.
  Worry, anxiety.
  Feared, something that threatens.
  Device for controlling the flow of water.
  Run slowly and steadily for a time, for physical exercise.

2. Answer the following questions according to the text (2 points).

a. Is the water from the tap good in America?


  b. Do you need to be vaccinated if you travel to America?


  c. What can you do if you go to America after having been prescribed a certain medicine?


  d. Why do some America people drink water from plastic bottles?


  3. Rewrite the following without changing the meaning of the original sentence (1.5 points).

a. You will fail your exam unless you work harder.


b. Dana never believes anything if she doesn’t see it with her own eyes.


c. The opera singer won’t make an appearance unless the photographers are there.


  4. Rewrite the following sentences without changing the meaning of the original sentence a. Michael was late for school because he woke up late.


b. We didn’t sell our car last year and so we didn’t get a new one.


c. The swimmer drowned because the sea was too rough.


  5. Composition. Write 80 words about Health Sudan.


The clinical Spectrum

   In the field of health care, normality and health are synonymous. Both states are difficult to define and are therefore, not easy to measure. The World Health Organization has defined health as ‘a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’. However, in the population at any one time the majority of people will probably have no detectable abnormality and would, therefore, be regarded as normal. Some of the remainder will be apparently normal and yet will possess some characteristic, for example over-weight, which will put them in a high risk category in relation to the future chances of developing disease. Other will show, on examination, signs of disease not previously recognized and not yet giving rise to symptoms. Some will have overt, recognisable signs and symptoms of disease and a few will have such advanced disease that they are in the process of dying. There is thus a ‘clinical spectrum’ of disease in population, ranging from health to terminal illness. In general it is only those with recognized disease that tend to be seen as patients in hospital. They represent the tip of what has become known as the ‘clinical iceberg’. Much disease, and most people who are at high risk of developing disease, remain undetected in the community                       

     Many people with health problems do not consult a doctor. They either treat themselves or seek help from a neighbor or perhaps the local chemist. Of the people who seek medical advice and help, most will first of all consult a general medical practitioner. Some two-thirds, 64pecent, of illnesses seen can be considered minor and do not require referral to hospital. On the other hand, 15 percent are major, life threatening, illness and the remainder chronic illnesses, mostly of the upper respiratory tract and mental disturbances make up the two main illness groups seen in

general practice. Against the background of such minor illness skill is needed to recognize patients in the early stages of more serious diseases; a time when symptoms and clinical signs may be inconclusive.  Patients with serious illnesses or whose illness is difficult to diagnose will tend to be sent to hospital for either outpatient or inpatient treatment. Thus, the hospital clinician is confronted with a highly selected sample of patients and disease states. A house surgeon working in a general hospital may see and deal with two or three cases of acute appendicitis each day, whereas a general practitioner will only come across four or five cases in the course of a year.  The tips of the ‘iceberg’ are those who are in a terminal state.  The importance of a disease in medical practice, in terms of how common and how severe it is, thus varies markedly from one level of presentation to another                                                                                                            

  1. In health care, is there a difference between health and normality?


  1. How many people are truly healthy, using the WHO definition?      


  1. What do many people with health problems do instead of consulting a doctor?


  1. What are the two main groups of illness seen in general practice?


    5. Which patients tend to be sent to hospital for treatment?  



In not more than 50 words summarize the passage:













Beautiful Day, Isn’t It?

The day started out rotten. Mary overslept and was late for work. Everything that happened at the office contributed to her nervous frenzy. By the time she reached the bus stop for her homeward trip, her stomach was one big knot.

As usual, the bus was late – and jammed. She had to stand in the aisle. As the lurching vehicle pulled her in all directions, her gloom deepened. Then she heard a voice from up front boom, “Beautiful day, isn’t it?” Because of the crowd, she could not see the man, but she heard him as he continued to comment on the spring scenery, calling attention to each approaching landmark. This church. That park. This cemetery. That firehouse. Soon all the passengers were gazing out the windows. The man’s enthusiasm was so contagious she found herself smiling for the first time that day. They reached her stop. Manoeuvring toward the door, she got a look at their “guide”: an older gentleman with a beard, wearing dark glasses and carrying a thin, white cane.


1. Answer the following questions using you own words.

a. Did Mary have a good day?   b. When did Mary first smile?

2. Are the following statements true or false?

a. The voice speaking on the bus was a woman’s voice. 

b. The passengers on the bus did not care about the person speaking. 

3. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to:

a. Packed with people, overcrowded.        b. Looking out, observing, and watching.

4. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct

1. Mary arrived at work

a. One hour late.      b. Late.       c. Later than usual.

2. The bus was

a. late and full of people.    b. On time but full of people.     c. Late and empty.

3. The person speaking on the bus

a. Made all the passengers on the bus angry and bored.

b. Was talking about a relative.

c. Made all the passengers happy and interested.

4. The person speaking on the bus

a. was blind.          b. was young.         c. was old.

5. Composition (100-150 words). Is it safe to use the public means of transport? Which is

your favourite means of transport?













Sleep Disorder 

Sleep disorders can affect overall health, and some may be life threatening. In addition to daytime sleepiness and fatigue, certain disorders may cause high blood pressure and serious heart problems. Sufferers often experience more illness, more accidents, reduced job performance, and strained relationships. Common symptoms of sleep disorders include:

  • Excessive daytime sleepiness
  • Morning headache
  • Depression
  • Irritability
  • Learning and memory difficulties
  • Falling asleep while at work, on the phone, or while driving (Untreated sleep apnea patients are 3 times more likely to have car accidents)
  • Increased risk for irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure, heart attack, and stroke (High blood pressure is present in 50 percent of those who suffer from sleep apnea)

Types of Sleep Disorders

There are more than 84 different types of sleep disorders. Following are a few of the most common:

  • Chronic fatigue: a disorder that produces an ongoing feeling of tiredness, malaise, sleepiness, boredom, or depression; has various causes and is sometimes associated with a sleep disorder.
  • Insomnia: the most common sleep disorder; described as the inability to initiate or maintain sleep and is associated with daytime fatigue and sleepiness; often the result of stress, illness, environmental factors, or other conditions that throw off a normal sleep schedule
  • Narcolepsy: a disorder that manifests itself through excessive daytime sleepiness, uncontrollable sleep attacks and muscle weakness triggered by sudden emotional reactions such as laughter or fear; sometimes accompanied by vivid dreamlike scenes or paralysis upon falling asleep or waking.
  • Parasomnias: a disorder that may include nightmares, chest pain, night terrors, sleepwalking and sleep talking; most common in childhood and sometimes worsens during adolescence and adulthood.
  • Restless legs syndrome (RLS): neurological movement disorder characterized by abnormal, uncomfortable stinging in the legs that typically occurs or worsens when a person is at rest.
  • Sleep apnea: a disorder that occurs when air cannot flow in or out of a person’s nose or mouth although efforts to breathe continue; caused by mechanical and structural problems in the airway that cause interruptions in breathing (i.e., throat muscles and tongue relax, excessive amount of tissue in the airway); results in choking sensations during sleep and is almost always accompanied by snoring between apnea episodes.
  • Sleep/Wake Cycle Disorders: a disorder accompanied by symptoms of insomnia or sleepiness at inappropriate times; associated with patients who work rotating schedules, suffer from jet lag, or have insufficient sleep syndrome; can become progressive and chronic, but can be treated with medication and therapy.

Good Sleep Habits

  • Maintain a regular wake time, even on days off work and on weekends
  • Try to go to bed only when you are drowsy
  • If you are not drowsy and are unable to fall asleep for about 20 minutes, leave your bedroom and engage in a quite activity elsewhere. Return to bed when, and only when, you are sleepy.
  • Use your bedroom only for sleep and time of illness.
  • Avoid napping during the daytime. Mid-afternoon (no later than 3 p.m.) is best for most people.
  • Establish relaxing pre-sleep rituals such as a warm bath, light bedtime snack, or ten minutes of reading.
  • Exercise regularly. Confine hard exercise to early hours, at least six hours before bedtime, and do mild exercise at least four hours prior to bedtime.

  Read the statements below. Choose TRUE or FALSE.

  1. I feel sleepy during the day, even when I get a good night’s sleep.
  2. I get very irritable when I cannot sleep.
  3. I often wake up at night and have trouble falling back asleep.
  4. It usually takes me a long time to fall asleep.
  5. I often wake up very early and can’t fall back to sleep.
  6. I usually feel stiff when I wake up in the morning.
  7. I often seem to wake up because of dreams.
  8. I sometimes wake up gasping for breath.
  9. My brother/sister says my snoring keeps her/him from sleeping.

10. I have fallen asleep driving.

If you chose TRUE more than twice, you may want to discuss your sleep problem with your physician.

Cross- word Game:

1. n. a number of people or things together; a gathering of people working together for a common purpose.

2. v. to pay or have to repay (usually money) in return for something received

3. v. to place, or to set in position

4. n. a measure of time sixty minutes

5. n. something that is owned: the condition of owning

6. v. to cut with teeth

7. ad. of or belonging to us

8. n. a feeling of sadness or sorrow about something that is done or happens




Years ago, a cigarette commercial asked if you were smoking more, but enjoying it less. That describes the way many of us live today. We are doing more, but enjoying it less. And when that doesn’t work, we compound the problem. In our frantic search for satisfaction, we try stuffing still more into our days, never realizing that we are taking the wrong approach.

The truth is simple; so simple it is hard to believe. Satisfaction lies with less, not with more. Yet, we pursue the myth that this thing, or that activity, will somehow provide the satisfaction we so desperately seek.

Arthur Lindman, in his devastating book, “The Harried Leisure Class,” described the futility of pursuing more. His research focused on what people did with their leisure time. He found that as income rose, people bought more things to occupy their leisure time. But, ironically, the more things they bought, the less they valued any one of them. Carried to an extreme, he predicted massive boredom in the midst of tremendous variety. That was more than twenty years ago, and his prediction seems more accurate every year. Lindman of course, is not the first to discover this. The writer of Ecclesiastes expressed the same thought thousands of years ago. It is better, he wrote, to have less, but enjoy it more. If you would like to enjoy life more, I challenge you to experiment with me. How could you simplify your life? What could you drop? What could you do without? What could you stop pursuing? What few things could you concentrate on?

The more I learn, the more I realize that fullness of life does not depend on things. The more I give up, the more I seem to gain. But words will never convince you. You must try it for yourself. Copyright 1990 Dr. Merrill Douglass/Time Management Corporation


1. Answer the following questions using your own words.

a. When do people normally start buying more things?

b. Why do people buy more and more according to the text?

2. Are the following statements true or false?

a. The idea of having a lot and enjoying it little can be found in one of the books of the Bible.

b. We try to find satisfaction by selling all the things at home that we do not need anymore.

3. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to:

a. Done or arranged in a hurry and a state of excitement or confusion.

b. That has a great effect.

4. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct.

1. Arthur Lindman wrote

a. a novel.     b. The Harried Leisure       Class. c. Ecclesiastes.

2. Lindman wrote his book

a. ten years ago.        b. twenty years ago.        c. more than twenty years ago.

3. We can make our life happier if we

a. get rid of useless things.     b. buy more things.        c. sell things we do not need.

4. Simplifying our life is

a. nonsense.       b. our duty.        c. a good piece of advice


5. Composition (100-150 words). Do you lead a simple life or do you need many hobbies to be happy?





Nutrients are the parts of food that are important for life and health. Nutrients are important for three reasons. First, some nutrients provide fuel for energy. Second, some nutrients build and repair body tissues. Third, some nutrients help control different processes of the body like the absorption of minerals and the clotting of blood. These nutrients are divided into five general groups: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals and vitamins.

   The first group of nutrients is Carbohydrates. There are two kinds of carbohydrates: Starches sugars. I3read and potatoes, and rice are starches. They have many carbohydrates Candy, soft drinks, jelly and other foods with sugar also have carbohydrates

Carbohydrates are important because they provide the body with heat and energy. Sugar, for instance, is 100 percent energy. It has no other food value. Sugar does not build body tissues or control body processes. If there are many carbohydrates in the body, they are stored as fat.

The second group of nutrients is Fat. There are two types of fats: Animal and vegetable. Butter, cream, and the fat in bacon are animal fats. Olive oil, corn oil, and peanut oil are vegetable fats. The body has fat under the skin and around some organs inside. Fat is extra fuel. When the body needs energy, it changes the, fat into carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are used for energy. Fat also keeps the body warm.

The third group of nutrients is proteins. The word “protein” comes from a Greek word that means “of first importance” because they are necessary for life. Proteins are made o amino acids, which build and repair body tissues. There are two kinds of proteins: Complete proteins, which we find in meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk and cheese; and incomplete proteins which we find in vegetables and grains.

The fourth group of nutrients is minerals. More than twenty different minerals are in the body. Three of the most important minerals are calcium, phosphorus, and iron. Calcium and phosphorus work, together. The bones and the teeth have 99 percent of the calcium in the body .If people have enough calcium and phosphorus, their bones arid teeth will be strong and hard .In addition, their muscles, nerves, and heart will work correctly .Milk and hard cheeses are the best sources of  calcium

The fifth group of nutrients is vitamins. Nutritionists think there are thirteen vitamins that humans need. Vitamins are important because they prevent diseases and help control body processes. Vitamin A is important for healthy skin and eyes. People who don’t have enough vitamin A may have night blindness.

Vitamin A in the diet comes from deep yellow fruits and vegetables, dark green leafy vegetable, and whole milk. When people have enough B vitamins, their appetite i good and their nerves are calm. B vitamins in the diet come from source meats and vegetables, milk, cottage cheese and whole grains especially rice.

Vitamin C keeps the cells of the body together. It helps skin tissue recover from cuts and burns. Vitamin C in the diet comes from tomatoes, citrus fruits like lemons and oranges, and some vegetables such as, cabbage, and green peppers.

Vitamin D is called the ‘sunshine vitamin. When people sit outside, ultraviolet rays from the sun change a fat in their skin to vitamin D. Vitamin D is also in cod liver oil and yellow of eggs.

There is no one food that is essential, but there are nutrients that are necessary for good health. If people want to be healthy and active, they need to get all the essential nutrients. A healthy body needs carbohydrates, fats, proteins, minerals, and vitamins.

A) Comprehension Check:

I- What are nutrients?

2- How many minerals are there in the human body?

3- Do nutritionists regard vitamins as vital for the human body? Why?

4- Is there any one food that is essential or health?

B)  In not more that 60 words summarize the passage:



































Breast Cancer

Urge                 Aggressive        Target              return                 Receive

Breast              Reappear         Research          Progress            Operation

Attach              Risk                  Cost                  Chemotherapy  

Three studies show that a drug used to treat an aggressive form of breast cancer after it has spread also can treat it earlier.

Results of the studies involving the drug Herceptin have been published in the New England Journal of Medicine.  They show that in some cases it cut by about fifty percent the chance that the cancer would reappear. 

The drug targets the kind of breast cancer known as H.E.R. two, or HER-two, positive.  Women who produce too much of the HER-two protein have a cancer that is especially fast-growing. 

Researchers say about fifteen to twenty-five percent of women with breast cancer have this kind.  Doctors can remove the cancer, but it is more likely than others to return. 

More than eight thousand women took part in the studies in Europe and North America.  All had early HER-two positive breast cancer. The European study followed the progress of women for up to two years.  The researchers say the cancer returned in twenty-three percent of those not receiving Herceptin.  Only fourteen percent of the women who received the drug experienced a return of the cancer.

The other two studies involved women who were treated with an operation, chemotherapy drugs and, in some cases, Herceptin.  Thirty-three percent of the women who did not receive Herceptin had their cancer return within four years.  This happened to only fifteen percent of those treated with Herceptin.

Herceptin is an antibody that attaches itself to the HER-two gene on cancerous growths.  It slows or stops the cancer from growing.  Treatment must continue for one year.  It costs about forty-eight thousand dollars.

The studies showed possible heart-related risks.  About four percent of the women who took Herceptin along with other drugs suffered serious heart problems.  The rate was only about half of one percent when patients took Herceptin within one year of completing other drug treatment.

The researchers are not sure why these heart problems appeared.  They say more and longer studies are needed to answer this and other questions about the drug.  American doctors are being urged to treat early HER-two breast cancer with Herceptin.  But some say it will take years to prove that these results can be repeated with all HER-two breast cancer patients.

This VOA Special English Health Report was written by Nancy Steinbach

Exercise 1. Complete each sentence with the suitable word:

  1. I …………………. a copy of my notes for your information
  2. We did not even make enough money to cover the …………………. of the food.
  3. I ………………….. from work to find the house empty
  4. We  …………………………. a warm welcome from our hosts.
  5. Smoking can increase the …………………….. of developing heart disease

Exercise 2   Match the words to their meanings

  1. Breast:              a. angry, and behaving in a threatening way; ready to attack
  2. Aggressive :    b. the process of cutting open a part of a person’s body in order to

                                remove or repair a damaged par

  1. Operation:       c. the process of improving or developing, or of getting nearer to achieving

                                or completing sth:

  1. Target:              d. to aim an attack or a criticism at sb/sth
  2. Progress:           e.  either of the two round soft parts at the front of a woman’s body that 

                                       produce milk when she has had a baby

Exercise 3    Make questions

Three studies Return of cancer Heart risk
Operation 33% —-
Chemotherapy 4%
Herceptin 15% 0.5%

For example:

  1. What is the rate of cancer in cases of using Herceptin?


  1. ……………………………………………………………………………………


  1. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  2. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..….
  3. …………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………………

Exercise 4.  Identify the odd word and the reason:

  1. Arthritis – cancer – cough                          a. it doesn’t has a sense of repetition
  2. Reappear – return – Receive                        b. mainly should be done in hospitals
  3. Chemotherapy – Operation – Deteriorate    c. it is not a verb 
  4. Breast – Target – Attach                              d. it is not a disease in itself

Exercise 5 crosswords



  1. to appear again after not being heard of or seen for a period of time
  2. a careful study of a subject, especially in order to discover new facts or information about it:
  3. the amount of money that you need in order to buy, make or do sth
  4. to aim an attack or a criticism at sb/sth
  5. either of the two round soft parts at the front of a woman’s body that produce milk when she has had a baby:
  6. to advise or try hard to persuade sb to do sth:
  7. angry, and behaving in a threatening way; ready to attack:
  8. the possibility of sth bad happening at some time in the future





The cross-cultural spread of English is unprecedented in other ways. It is more widely used than any of the other colonial languages like French, Portuguese or Spanish. It even has a wider use than some of the languages associated with international non-Western religious traditions, like Arabic or Sanskrit. In countries like India and Nigeria, English is used at all levels of society: in local English- language newspapers and broadcasting, in public administration, in university education, in the major industries, the courts and the civil service. Indeed, with nearly 200 languages, India needs English to unify the country.

Professor Lal, a champion of Indian English, who runs a well-known writers’ workshop, claims that in simple numerical terms, in a country of 840 million, ‘more Indians speak English and write English than in England itself … You know what Malcolm Muggeridge said: “The last Englishman left will be an Indian.”


1. Answer the following questions using your own words. (2 points)

a. Why is English more important than other colonial languages?

b. Why is English so important in India?

2. Are the following statements true or false? (1 point)

a. Professor Lal manages a writers’ workshop in India. _

b. Malcom Muggeridge said that Indians are left-handed. _

3. Find a word or phrase in the text which, in context, is similar in meaning to:

States (v): ____________________

Higher education: ____________________

4. Choose a, b or c in each question below. Only one choice is correct. (2 points)

1. The way English is spreading is

a. something normal.

b. absolutely unusual.

c. quite uncertain.

2. The use of English is

a. as frequent as other colonial languages.

b. less frequent than other colonial languages.

c. more frequent than other colonial languages.

3. In India and Nigeria, English

a. has a general use.

b. is used only in the streets.

c. is used by newspapers and the people who read it.

4. India

a. has fewer English speakers than Great Britain.

b. has 840 different languages.

c. has more English speakers than Great Britain.

5. Composition (100-150 words). Arabic in the world.

Cross- word Game:



1. ad. greatly honor in religion

1. ad. very big ; of great size

2. v. to show the way; to command; to control; to go first

3. ad. having the colour like that made by mixing  black and white

4. v. to look at and understand the meaning of written words or numbers

5. v. to give to food

5. ad. not many; a small number of…

6. ad. used to reject or to refuse; not any; not at all

7. n. an opening or entering or leaving a building or room


















Ask an American schoolchild what he or she is learning in school these days and you might even get a reply, provided you ask it in Spanish. But don’t bother, here’s the answer: Americans nowadays are not learning any of the things that we learned in our day, like reading and writing. Apparently these are considered fusty old subjects, invented by white males to oppress women and minorities.

What are they learning? In a Vermont college town I found the answer sitting in a toy store book rack, next to typical kids’ books like ‘Heather Has Two Mommies and Daddy Is Dysfunctional‘. It’s a teacher’s guide called ‘Happy To Be Me’, subtitled ‘Building Self Esteem‘.

Self-esteem, as it turns out, is a big subject in American classrooms. Many American schools see building it as important as teaching reading and writing. They call it “whole language” teaching, borrowing terminology from the granola people to compete in the education marketplace.

No one ever spent a moment building my self-esteem when I was in school. In fact, from the day I first stepped inside a classroom my self-esteem was one big demolition site. All that mattered was “the subject,” be it geography, history, or mathematics. I was praised when I remembered that “near”, “fit”, “friendly”, “pleasing”, “like” and their opposites took the dative case in Latin. I was reviled when I forgot what a cosine was good for. Generally I lived my school years beneath a torrent of castigation so consistent I eventually ceased to hear it, as people who live near the sea eventually stop hearing the waves.

Schools have changed. Reviling is out, for one thing. More important, subjects have changed. Whereas I learned English, modern kids learn something called “language skills.” Whereas I learned writing, modern kids learn something called “communication”. Communication, the book tells us, is seven per cent words, 23 per cent facial expression, 20 per cent tone of voice, and 50 per cent body language. So this column, with its carefully chosen words, would earn me at most a grade of seven per cent. That is, if the school even gave out something as oppressive and demanding as grades.

The result is that, in place of English classes, American children are getting a course in How to Win Friends and Influence People. Consider the new attitude toward journal writing: I remember one high school English class when we were required to keep a journal. The idea was to emulate those great writers who confided in diaries, searching their souls and honing their critical thinking on paper.

‘Happy To Be Me’ states that journals are a great way for students to get in touch with their feelings. Tell students they can write one sentence or a whole page. Reassure them that no one, not even you, will read what they write. After the unit, hopefully all students will be feeling good about themselves and will want to share some of their entries with the class.”

There was a time when no self-respecting book for English teachers would use “great” or “hopefully” that way. Moreover, back then the purpose of English courses (an antique term for “Unit”) was not to help students “feel good about themselves.” Which is good, because all that reviling didn’t make me feel particularly good about anything?

1. In paragraph 3 “whole language” teaching is in inverted commas because:
(a)the writer is using direct speech
(b)the writer is questioning the concept
(c)the words quoted are a translation
(d)the writer is quoting from another source

2. Which of the following is the writer implying in paragraph 5?
(a)self-criticism has gone too far
(b)evaluating criteria are inappropriate nowadays
(c)communication is a more comprehensive category than language skills
(d)this column does not meet the demanding evaluating criteria of today

3. Which of the following does the writer NOT suggest:
(a)subjects are no longer taught seriously
(b)academic standards in schools nowadays are no longer high enough
(c)kids nowadays are encouraged to be self-critical
(d)the use of language has changed for the worse

4.How would you describe the writer’s style?
(a)academic                         (b)critical         (c)analytical            (d)comparative
5. How would you describe the writer’s attitudes?
(a)progressive                     (b)reactionary         (c)liberal                       (d)tolerant
6. How would you describe the writer’s attitude towards current learning strategies?
(a)distanced                  (b)admiring        (c)ironical                     (d)objective
7. In paragraph 1 ‘provided’ could NOT be replaced by which of the following?
(a)providing that                  (b)although      (c)as long as         (d)on the condition that
8. The writer’s intention is to get us to:
(a)confirm current trends      (c)think about what constitutes communication
(b)rethink educational strategies   (d)reassure parents
9. In paragraph 1 ‘apparently’ is closest in meaning to:
(a)appropriately                   (b)of course       (c)it seems            (d)naturally
10. In paragraph 4 ‘reviled’ could be replaced by which of the following?
(a)criticized                      (b)revered         (c)retrained           (d)praised
11. In paragraph 4 ‘generally’ is closest in meaning to which of the following:
(a)as usual                  (b)on the whole      (c)at the time           (d)on average
12. The word ‘eventually’ in paragraph 4 is similar in meaning to which of the following:
(a)in the event               (b)conclusively     (c)in the end               (d)essentially
13. In paragraph 5 ‘That is, if’ could be replaced by which of the following:
(a)On the other hand if          (b)Expecting that      (c)Provided that             (d)Alternatively if
14. Which of the following could best replace ’emulate’ in paragraph 6?
(a)improve upon               (b)imagine         (c)imitate                    (d)impersonate
15. ‘Moreover’ in paragraph 8 is used:
(a)in order to make a further point in a line of argument
(b)in order to introduce a new line of argument
(c)in order to emphasise a contrast in a line of argument
(d)because it is a convenient word to join any two sentences
16. In paragraph 7 “a great way for students to get in touch with their feelings… “ is in inverted commas because:
(a)the writer is using direct speech              ( c)the words quoted are a translation
(b)the words are used in an unusual way     (d)the writer is quoting from another source


















Absence from work is costly and disruptive problem for any organization. The cost of absenteeism in Australia has been put at 1.8 million hours per day or $1400 million annually. The study reported here was conducted I the Prince William Hospital in Brishane, Australia, where, prior to this time, few active steps had been taken to measure, understand or manage the occurrence of absenteeism.

   A prevalent attitude amongst many nurses in the group selected for study was that there was no reward or recognition for not utilizing the paid sick leave entitlement allowed them in their employment conditions. Therefore, they believed they may as well take the days off- sick or otherwise. Similar attitudes have been noted by James (1989), who noted that sick leaves is seen by many workers as a right like annual holiday leave.

   Miller and Norton (1986), in their survey of 865 nursing personnel, found that 73 cent felt they should be rewarded for not taking sick leave, because some employees always used their sick leave. Further, 67 per cent of nurses felt that administration was not sympathetic to the problems shift work causes to employees’ personal and social lives. Only 53 per cent of the respondents felt that every effort was made to schedule staff fairly.

   In another longitudinal study of nurses working in two Canadian hospitals examined the reasons why nurses took absence from work. The most frequent reason stated for absence was minor illness to self other causes, in decreasing order of frequency, were illness in family, family social function, work to do at home and bereavement.

   In an attempt to reduce the level of absenteeism amongst the 250 registered and Enrolled Nurses in the present study, the Prince William management introduced three different, yet potentially complementary, strategies over 18 months.

Strategy 1: Non-financial (material) incentives:-

    Within the established wage and salary system it was not possible to use hospital funds to support this strategy. However, it was possible to secure incentives from local businesses, including free passes to entertainment parks, theaters, restaurants etc. At the end each roster period, the ward with the lowest absence rate would win the prize. 

  1. What is the side effect of the absenteeism from a job?

a. financial loss                b. to enjoy one’s time              c. it is a bad habit        d. it has no effect 

  1. Why did the Australians study the excessive absence among nurses?

a. because it has become disruptive problem                        b. because it cost them a lot              

c. because they have spire time               d. because they want to recognize & control the reasons.   

  1. Where has the study taken place in Australia?

a. in Canadian hospital        b. in Prince William                  c. in Australian hospital                  d. in Brishane   

  1. How the employers do rewards their employees who don’t absent themselves – before the study?

a. they give them prize              b. they praise them 

c. they don’t reward the   d. they give them additional work

  1. Who thinks that taking a day off is a legal right?

a. Mr. Miler  b. Mr. Kackett     c. Mr. William   d. the nurses   

  1. What is the percentage of nurses who believes that employers don’t consider the heavy duties and the long pressing working hours?

a. 73 % of 865 nurses   b. 67%  of 865 nurses     c. only 53% of the respondents  d. no body at all 

  1. How many studies are there in this passage?

a. only one                 b. two studies             c. three studies       d. four studies 

  1. Why do nurses mainly absence themselves in Canada?

a. minor sick to self             b. illness in a family                 c. social work                                  d. bereavement   

  1. What is the time interval that the implementation of the different strategies to reduce absenteeism among nurses in the Prince Hospital?

a. 14 months                   b. 15 months                c. two years           d. a whole year and half 

  1. From where does the administration get the money for the prize in the first strategy?

a. hospital funds                  b. local business                         c. from donations                                   d. from salaries 

  1. How many points of views are there in Miler & Norton’s survey as far as the absence of nurses is concerned?

a. three views         b. only one view     

c. two views           d. four views 

  1. Where do Mr. Hackett & Mr. Guion held their study?

a. in America            b. in Canada                                         c. in Australia                                           d. in Sudan 

Questions (2)    Complete the notes below.

Choose ONE OR TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer. Write your answers in box 1—6  on your answer sheet.

   In the first strategy, wards with the lowest absenteeism in different periods would win prizes donated by … (1) … In the second strategy, staff were given more control over their ……(2)……..In the third strategy, nurses who appeared to be taking … (3) ……….. sick leave or ……….. (4)…were identified and counseled. Initially, there was a … (5) … per cent decrease in absenteeism. The first strategy was considered ineffective and stopped. The second and third strategies generally resulted in better … (6) … among staff












The Epidemiological Approach to Medicine

Population and Disease:

       Epidemiology may be defined as the study of distribution and determinants of disease in populations. The study of disease patterns in human populations is an early step in a chain of processes that ends in identifying the cause of disease. If cause can be identified, then it may be a relatively easy matter to prevent a disease from occurring. It makes sense to prevent, rather than to try to treat, often inadequately, the late effects of disease processes. Yet at present, and in most countries, far more money is spent on ‘curative medicine’ than on ‘preventive medicine’.


It has been known since the time of Hippocrates that personal, place and time factors influence whether or not people become ill.

Age and Sex of the personal factors: age is one of the most important. In developed countries death rates, except in the first year of life, are very low until middle age or late middle age, when they begin to rise steeply.

Because of this marked association, the age structure population must be taken into account when attempts are made to compare death rates. Various standardization techniques are available to make this possible. In developing countries, death rates in the first few years of life are usually very high; in some areas more than 50per cent of children die before the age of five. Infant mortality rates-death in the first year of life- are a useful index of the ‘healthiness’ or otherwise of a country.

The sex of an individual is also an important determinant of health or disease. The male appears to be the biologically weaker sex, and death rates are higher for males than for females at almost every age.

Ethnic and cultural factors:- These factors have important influences, though it is often difficult to separate their individual effects. Death rates among the non-white population of the United States are higher, age for age, than among the white. The differences are mostly explainable in terms of a poorer total environment rather than in ‘racial’ terms. Few Seventh Day Adventists die of lung cancer; cigarette smoking is not encouraged in that sect.

Social Class: Some striking patterns emerge when social class and morbidity or mortality are examined. Because death rates vary so considerably with age and between the sexes, when the mortality experiences of two or more groups are compared it is necessary to take their age and sex structure into account. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) is one of the measures mentioned above which compensates for such variations.

Occupation: Occupation affects health in a variety of ways. Firstly, there are jobs which are dangerous in that physical, chemical or biological hazards are directly involved. Second, there are jobs that are relatively poorly paid, so that in societies where health care or education has to be purchased directly, individuals and their families are at disadvantages. There are also occupations that are mentally stressful but which demand little physical activity, a combination which may lead to an increased likelihood of the development of coronary artery disease.

Geography: Patterns of disease and death tend to vary throughout the world. The patterns are largely determined by the state of economic and other development of the country concerned. In developing countries the major problems are those of infections, parasitism and under-nutrition, though little reliable data are available for what amounts to about 70pre cent of the world’s population. Health services in developed countries, on the other hand, will deal mainly with disease of ageing population, of wear and tear, of stress and overindulgence.

Time Trends: Variations in disease patterns also occur with time the text shows how lung cancers deaths in males have increased dramatically in Britain during this century and how some of the factors that have been suspected as being causal have varied over the same period. The only factor that precedes the rise in lung cancer mortality by the right time interval and increases in parallel is cigarette consumption.

This variation is a long term one. Others occur over short periods of time. Epidemics of infectious diseases have been of importance since early in man’s history and are still familiar events in most countries of the world. Epidemics of non-infectious disease may also occur. Many of the excess were of elderly people already chronically ill. However, the death rate from bronchitis in persons under 45 was also higher than expected.

      In not more than 70 words summarize the above passage.

  A –  Fill  in the spaces with  words from the list : 

improve    –   glasshouse     –    artists     –   lubricating    –    financial

1-  Many talented ——————  were awarded prizes in the Festival of the Cinema.

2-   Reading  English literature  helps students to —————— their written essays .

          3-   Mr. Smith got into —————— problems. Hopefully, his friends helped him .

          4-   A———- enables plants to grow before their normal season.

          5-   The mechanic recommended ——————– oil to make the engine run smoothly . 

  1. Choose the word(s) that best complete(s) the sentences ,then write  a  , b or c  in the blank space.

   1-  Students are not  ———- to use mobile phones at school.

         a- prohibited              b-  forced                      c- allowed

   2-  Hamad and his sister would like to ——————- in French spoken courses.

           a– enroll                    b-  enclose                   c- enforce

   3-  Thousands of people visit MacKay to perform ————

            a- prayers                   b- pilgrimage                c- peace

   4- According to the weather ——————–  it is going to snow in the Alps.

        a- prediction               b-  progress                  c-  proofs

   5-    A ——————– accident took place in the factory because of carelessness.

      a- political                    b- disastrous                c- decent     
Choose the word  which is closest in meaning to the underlined words from a , b or c

1-   Al –Jazeerah Channel has  officials  who collect news almost all over the world.

    a-   announcers       b- correspondents     c- commentators 

2-   My uncle has a big milk and cheese- producing farm in Madani. 

      a-    dairy               b- livestock                 c- poultry 

3-   Sudan is using oil  incomes  for the welfare of the citizens.

     a- regions                  b-   refineries                c- revenues  

4-   I would be forever thankful to my parents  for their endless care.

       a-  reasonable          b- gratefu               c- pleasant 




Read the following passage and then circle the letter of the best answer.

  Cholesterol is one of the many substances in the body that use the cardiovascular system to get to where they need to do. During the past several years, population and clinical studies have repeatedly shown a strong association between the amount of cholesterol in the blood (serum cholesterol) and risk of artery disease (atherosclerosis). The higher the cholesterol level, the greater one’s risk of artery disease. When cholesterol levels are lowered through life-style change or drugs, the risk of heart disease declines as well. In fact, along with hypertension and smoking, a high level of serum cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia) is considered one of the major modifiable risk factors for heart disease.

      Despite this negative association, cholesterol is biologically very useful. This liquid is an important component of cell membranes and is synthesized into steroid hormones, including testosterone and estrogens.  The liver uses cholesterol to produce bile salts, which are sent to the small intestine to assist liquid digestion and absorption. It is also used to make vitamin D.

1.Studies have shown that there is a link between the amount of  serum

   cholesterol and     __________.

        a. the heart       b. the narrowing of arteries    

     c. the cholesterol level          d. life-cycle change            

2. ____ is one of the changeable risk factors for heart disease.

      a. Population       b. Hypertension      

      c. Lower cholesterol            d. The use of drugs

3. Vitamin D is made ___________________________.

      a. from bile salts           b. in intestines     

      c. from estrogens          d. from cholesterol            

4. The risk of heart disease will fall if a person___________.

       a. lowers his cholesterol           b. raises his cholesterol

       c. has artery disease                 d. starts smoking        

5. ______ sent to the small intestine to help in lipid digestion.

       a. Liver is        b. Cholesterol is       c. Bile salts are                  d. Vitamin D is

6. Cholesterol is _______________________cell membranes.

        a. used in         b. a part of        

        c. made up of               d. synthesized into

Question II: Read the passage again and then say whether each of the sentences below is true (T) or false (F). Circle (T) or (F).

1.    T      F      Testosterone is made of cholesterol.

2.    T      F       Liver uses bile salts to produce cholesterol.

3.    T      F      Drugs can reduce cholesterol in the body.

4.    T      F      Atherosclerosis is the widening of arteries.

5.    T      F     Serum cholesterol means the risk of artery disease.

6.    T      F       Hypercholesterolemia means the condition of high  amount of serum cholesterol.




 Read the following passage and then circle the letter of the best answer:

    Diet is the daily amount of food consumed by an individual. Humans require a mixed diet, i.e. a diet consisting of different animal and plant foods, and no single food contains all the essential nutrients in the proportions required for health. For example, milk contains all the nutrients required by the body but not in the correct proportions.                                                                                     

    A well-balanced diet is essential to maintain health. For example, large amounts of protein are required by pregnant women, growing children, and people carrying out heavy work. More fat is desirable for people living in cold countries. In many  densely populated underdeveloped countries, lack of animal protein and fat is responsible for a low standard of health and a high rate of death.

  1. In ____________countries many people die because they don’t each mush animal protein.

        a. all densely populated           b. several underdeveloped

       c. a few underdeveloped          d. all underdeveloped

  1. People should _________________ for their good health.

      a. eat only animal food             b. eat only plant food

      c. remain hungry        d.  eat both plant and animal food                          

  1. Those who live in cold countries should eat more  _________________.

      a. protein                        b. plants        c. carbohydrates                         d. fat

  1. ____________ necessary nutrients needed for health.

       a. There is no food which has         b. All foods have

       c. Animal foods have                d. Plant foods have

  1. Nutrients in milk are ________________________.

       a. are in a balanced ratio        b. are not in a balanced ratio

       c. are taken from plant food        d. come from animal food

  1. Large amounts of protein are required by ______.
  2. persons carrying out heavy work

b.  men living in hot countries

  1. pregnant women and growing children                       d.both a and c

Question 2: Read the passage again and indicate whether each of the following sentences is true (T) or false (F) according to the text.

T    F    1. Humans don’t need a mixed diet because all foods contain essential nutrients.                                                                                                  

T    F   2. In many under-developed countries, the rate of death is low.

T     F  3. A person can maintain good health by working in an office.

T     F    4. People live in cold countries because they want to eat more   fat.                                                                                                             

T    F  5. Growin children should be given more protein for their health.

Question 3: Match the words with their meanings.

               1. fist                          ________ hollow space

               2. contract                  ___________  man-made

               3 cavity.                   ___________  decide

               4 divide  .                     ___________ closed hand

               5  artificial                 ___________  decide

               6 determine.              ___________ become small

Read the following passage then answer the questions below

    Alfred Nobel was a Swedish who lived from 1833 to 1896.  He invented dynamite and other kinds of powerful explosives . Nobel was also a poet . He thought that literature and science were the most important things for human progress .  Nobel was interested in establishing peace. It may be that he felt  a need to do something noble for the world. When Nobel died, he left a million to be used in giving prizes to those who made very important contribution in physics, peace and economics . In 1901, first prizes were awarded on the anniversary of his death . It is noteworthy that Arab novelist Najeeb Mahfoudh won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1989. 

  1. Mark the following statements as True or False

1-  Alfred Nobel was  a literary critic.      ( —————)

2-  Nobel died at the age of sixty-three .                         ( ————– )

3-  He wanted to do something noble for himself.           ( —————)

4-  1901 marks Alfred Nobel’s date of death.                 ( —————)

  1. Fill in the table with the missing information 
Date of birth   Date of death    Nationality    Inventions Literary interest
  1. Answer the following questions :
  2. Who can  win any of Nobel prizes ?
  3. What is Najeeb Mahfoudh famous for ?


Fetal Skin Cells May Treat Burns

morality           graft                    stretch                 permission

Association      damage                abortion               pregnancy

progress           wound                  fetus                    Burn


A method tested in Switzerland may offer a new way to treat burns.  Researchers used skin cells grown from a fetus to treat serious burns in eight children.  Some of the burns were the most severe kind.

The skin cells came from a pregnancy that ended when the mother had an abortion at fourteen weeks.  She gave the scientists permission to use four centimeters of skin from her fetus. 

The cells divided in a laboratory.  Then the scientists mixed the cells with collagen.  Collagen is a protein that enables skin to stretch.  The researchers say this process can provide many small pieces of skin tissue.

They placed some of the pieces on top of the wounds of the children.  The pieces of tissue were replaced with fresh ones every three to four days.  The scientists say the process was not at all difficult.  The children were between the ages of fourteen months and nine years old. 

Usually, doctors use skin from other parts of a patient’s body to repair damage from burns.  The process is called grafting.  However, those skin cells reproduce slowly and sometimes painfully.  And the new skin often does not look good. 

Patrick Hohlfeld of the University Hospital of Lausanne led the study.  He says members of his team were surprised at the results.  He says they expected the fetal tissue to work much the same as the skin grafts.  The British medical magazine The Lancet reported the findings. 

The report says the wounds on the young burn patients healed in about fifteen days.  Most graft treatments take six times longer.  And the scientists say the repairs were complete.  Most of the children recovered full use of the damaged areas.  The researchers followed the progress for up to two years.

Other researchers say the results of the Swiss experiment still need to be compared to current burn treatments.  They noted that no one knows if the burns on the children would have healed without the fetal cell treatment. 

And questions have been raised about the morality in the use of tissue from an aborted fetus.  The Washington Post published a letter from a policy expert at the Christian Medical Association.  He says mistreatment of early human life can easily progress to other groups in society.

Exercise 1. Complete each sentence with the suitable word:

  1. They …………………… waste paper and dead leaves
  2. Do you belong to any ……………………………..?
  3. We have made great ………………………… in controlling inflation.
  4. It took a long time for the wounds to ……………………………….
  5. This sweater has …………………………………
  6. The storm didn’t do much ………………………………


Exercise 2    What is the connection between each pair of words?

  1. abortion & pregnancy   a. they are antonym in meaning
  2. wound & Burn                b. one is to move forward while other is to move backward
  3. heal & sick                      c. one of them comes after the other in sequence
  4. stretch & shrink              d. they are mainly damage in skin
  5. progress & regression    e. increase or decrease in the size of something

Exercise 3    Match the words to their meanings

  1. Association               a. to take a piece of skin, bone from a part of the body and attach it to a  

                                     damaged part

  1. permission           c. group of people who have joined together for a particular purpose
  2. Graft                  d. the act of allowing sb to do sth, especially when this is done by sb in a  

                                     position of authority:

  1. abortion             b. a young human or animal before it is born, especially a human more than

                                    eight weeks after

  1. fetus                   e.  the deliberate ending of a pregnancy at an early stage


Exercise 4   Make a sentence with each of the word in exercise 3 then give definition

For example:

We have established a new association – I mean a group of people who come together for certain puposes.


Exercise 5    Make questions

1 Who What Where
Fetal Skin Hohlfeld fetus Switzerland
researchers burn Swiss

For example:

  1. Who is Hohlfeld?


  1. …………………………………………………………………………………?


  1. ………………………………………………………………………………….?


  1. …………………………………………………………………………………?……………………………………………………………………………………
  2. …………………………………………………………………………………?…………………………………………………………………………………..









‘Feathertop’ by Nathaniel Hawthorne 
Written by Nathaniel Hawthorne.  Transcript of radio broadcast:
13 December 2008

Our story today is called “Feathertop.” It was written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Here is Shep O’Neal with the story.

The long cold winter was gone at last. At first the cold nights went away slowly. Then suddenly, the warm days of spring started to come. There was new life again in the earth. Things started to grow and come up. For the first time, green corn plants began to show. They pushed through the soil and could now be seen above the ground.

After the long winter months, the crows, the big black birds, were hungry. And when they saw the little green plants, they flew down to eat them. Old Mother Rigby tried to make the noisy and hungry birds go away. They made her very angry. She did not want the black birds to eat her corn. But the birds would not go away. So, early one morning, just as the sun started to rise, Mother Rigby jumped out of bed. She had a plan to stop those black birds from eating her corn.

Mother Rigby could do anything. She was a witch, a woman with strange powers. She could make water run uphill, or change a beautiful woman into a white horse. Many nights when the moon was full and bright, she could be seen flying over the tops of the houses in the village, sitting on a long wooden stick. It was a broomstick, and it helped her to do all sorts of strange tricks.

Mother Rigby ate a quick breakfast and then started to work on her broomstick. She was planning to make something that would look like a man. It would fill the birds with fear, and scare them from eating her corn, the way most farmers protect themselves from those black, pesky birds.

Mother Rigby worked quickly. She held her magic broomstick straight, and then tied another piece of wood across it. And already, it began to look like a man with arms.

Then she made the head. She put a pumpkin, a vegetable the size of a football, on top of the broomstick. She made two small holes in the pumpkin for eyes, and made another cut lower down that looked just like a mouth.

At last, there he was. He seemed ready to go to work for Mother Rigby and stop those old birds from eating her corn. But, Mother Rigby was not happy with what she made. She wanted to make her scarecrow look better and better, for she was a good worker. She made a purple coat and put it around her scarecrow, and dressed it in white silk stockings. She covered him with false hair and an old hat. And in that hat, she stuck the feather of a bird.

She examined him closely, and decided she liked him much better now, dressed up in a beautiful coat, with a fine feather on top of his hat. And, she named him Feathertop.

She looked at Feathertop and laughed with happiness. He is a beauty, she thought. “Now what?” she thought, feeling troubled again. She felt that Feathertop looked too good to be a scarecrow. “He can do something better,” she thought, “than just stand near the corn all summer and scare the crows.” And she decided on another plan for Feathertop.

She took the pipe of tobacco she was smoking and put it into the mouth of Feathertop. “Puff, darling, puff,” she said to Feathertop. “Puff away, my fine fellow.” It is your life.” Smoke started to rise from Feathertop’s mouth. At first, it was just a little smoke, but Feathertop worked hard, blowing and puffing. And, more and more smoke came out of him.

“Puff away, my pet,” Mother Rigby said, with happiness. “Puff away, my pretty one. Puff for your life, I tell you.” Mother Rigby then ordered Feathertop to walk. “Go forward,” she said. “You have a world before you.”

Feathertop put one hand out in front of him, trying to find something for support. At the same time he pushed one foot forward with great difficulty. But Mother Rigby shouted and ordered him on, and soon he began to go forward. Then she said, “you look like a man, and you walk like a man. Now I order you to talk like a man.”

Feathertop gasped, struggled, and at last said in a small whisper, “Mother, I want to speak, but I have no brain. What can I say?”

“Ah, you can speak,” Mother Rigby answered. “What shall you say? Have no fear. When you go out into the world, you will say a thousand things, and say them a thousand times…and saying them a thousand times again and again, you still will be saying nothing. So just talk, babble like a bird. Certainly you have enough of a brain for that.”

Mother Rigby gave Feathertop much money and said “Now you are as good as any of them and can hold your head high with importance.”

But she told Feathertop that he must never lose his pipe and must never let it stop smoking. She warned him that if his pipe ever stopped smoking, he would fall down and become just a bundle of sticks again.

“Have no fear, Mother,” Feathertop said in a big voice and blew a big cloud of smoke out of his mouth.

“On your way,” Mother Rigby said, pushing Feathertop out the door. “The world is yours. And if anybody asks you for your name, just say Feathertop. For you have a feather in your hat and a handful of feathers in your empty head.”

Feathertop found the streets in town, and many people started to look at him. They looked at his beautiful purple coat and his white silk stockings, and at the pipe he carried in his left hand, which he put back into his mouth every five steps he walked. They thought he was a visitor of great importance.

“What a fine, noble face” one man said. “He surely is somebody,” said another. “A great leader of men.”

As Feathertop walked along one of the quieter streets near the edge of town, he saw a very pretty girl standing in front of a small red brick house. A little boy was standing next to her. The pretty girl smiled at Feathertop, and love entered her heart. It made her whole face bright with sunlight.

Feathertop looked at her and had a feeling he never knew before. Suddenly, everything seemed a little different to him. The air was filled with a strange excitement. The sunlight glowed along the road, and people seemed to dance as they moved through the streets. Feathertop could not stop himself, and walked toward the pretty smiling young girl. As he got closer, the little boy at her side pointed his finger at Feathertop and said, “Look, Polly! The man has no face. It is a pumpkin.”

Feathertop moved no closer, but turned around and hurried through the streets of the town toward his home. When Mother Rigby opened the door, she saw Feathertop shaking with emotion. He was puffing on his pipe with great difficulty and making sounds like the clatter of sticks, or the rattling of bones.

“What’s wrong?” Mother Rigby asked.

“I am nothing, Mother. I am not a man. I am just a puff of smoke. I want to be something more than just a puff of smoke.” And Feathertop took his pipe, and with all his strength smashed it against the floor. He fell down and became a bundle of sticks as his pumpkin face rolled toward the wall.

“Poor Feathertop,” Mother Rigby said, looking at the heap on the floor. “He was too good to be a scarecrow. And he was too good to be a man. But he will be happier, standing near the corn all summer and protecting it from the birds. So I will make him a scarecrow again.”

The Gift of Magi

          One dollar and eighty- seven cents. That was all. She had put it aside, one cent and then another and then another, in her careful buying of meat and other food. Della counted it three times. One dollar and eighty- seven cents. And the next day would be Christmas.

There was nothing to do but fall on the bed and cry. So Della did it.

While the lady of the home is slowly growing quieter, we can look at the home. Furnished rooms at a cost of $8 a week. There is little more to say about it.

In the hall below was a letter-box too small to hold a letter. There was an electric bell, but it could not make sound. Also there was a name beside the door, “Mr. James Dillingham Young”. When the name was placed there, Mr. James Dillingham Young was being paid $30 a week. Now, when he was being paid only $20 a week, the name seemed too long and unimportant. It should perhaps have been “Mr. James D. Young”. But when Mr. James Dillingham Young entered the furnished rooms, his name became very short indeed. Mrs. James Dillingham Young put her arms warmly about him and called him “Jim”. You have already met her. She is Della.

Della finished her crying and cleaned the marks of it from her face. She stood by the window and looked out with no interest. Tomorrow would be Christmas Day, and she had only $1,87 with which to buy Jim a gift. She had put aside as much as she could form months, with this result. Twenty dollars a week is not much. Everything had cost more than she had expected. It always happened like that. Only $1,87 to buy a gift for Jim. Her Jim. She had had many happy hours planning something nice for him. Something nearly good enough. Something almost worth the honor of belonging to Jim.

There was a looking-glass between the windows of the room. Perhaps you have seen the kind of looking-glass that is placed in $8 furnished rooms. It was very narrow. A person could see only a little of himself at a time. However, if he was very thin and moved very quickly, he might be able to get a good view of himself. Della, being quite thin, had mastered this art.

Suddenly she turned from the window and stood before the looking- glass. Her eyes were shining brightly, but her face had lost its colour. Quickly she pulled down her hair and let it fall to its complete length

 The James Dillingham Youngs were very proud of two things which they owned. One thing was Jim’s gold watch. It had once belonged to his father. And long ago, it had belonged to his father’s father. The other thing was Della’s hair.

If a queen had lived in the rooms near theirs, Della would have washed and dried her hair where the queen could see it. Della knew her hair was more beautiful than any queen’s jewels and gifts.

If a king had lived in the same house, with all his riches, Jim would have looked at his watch every time they met. Jim knew that no king had anything so valuable. 

So now Della’s beautiful hair fell about her, shinning like a falling stream of brown water. It reached below her knees. It almost made itself into a dress for her. And then she put it up on her head again, nervously and quickly. Once she stopped for a moment and stood still while a tear or two ran down her face. She put on her old brown coat. She put on her old brown hat. With the bright light still in her eyes, she moved quickly out the door and down to the street.

Where she stopped, the sign said: “Mrs. Sofronie. Hair articles of all kinds”.

Up to the second floor Della ran, and stopped to get her breath.

Mrs. Sofronie, large too white, cold –eyed, looked at her.

Will you buy my hair? Asked Della.

“I buy hair” said Mrs. Sofronie “Take your hat off and let me look at it”

Down fell the brown waterfall

“Twenty dollars” said Mrs. Sofronie, lifting the hair to feel its weight.

“Give it to me quick” said Della.

Oh, and the next two hours seemed to fly. She was going from one shop to another, to find a gift for Jim.

She found it at last. It surely had been made for Jim and no one else. There was no other like it in any of the shops, and she had looked in every shop in the city.

It was a gold watch chain, very simply made. Its value was in its rich and pure material. Because it was so plain and simple, you knew that it was very valuable. All good things are like this.

It was good enough for the Watch. As soon as she saw it, she knew that Jim must have it. It was like him. Quietness and value- Jim and the chain both had quietness and value. She paid twenty-one dollars for it. And she hurried home with the chain and eighty-seven cents.

With that chain on his watch, Jim could look at his watch and learn the time anywhere he might be. Though the watch was so fine, it had never had a fine chain. He sometimes took it out and looked at it only when no one could see him do it.

When Della arrived home, her mind quieted a little. She began to think more reasonably. She started to try to cover the sad marks of what she had done. Love and large-hearted giving, when added together can leave deep marks. It is never easy to cover these marks. Dear friends – never easy.

Within forty minutes her head looked a little better. With her short hair, she looked wonderfully like a schoolboy. She stood at the looking- glass for a long time.

“If Jim doesn’t kill me” she said to herself, “before he looks at me a second time, he’ll say I look like a girl who sings and dances for money. But what could I do- oh what could I do with a dollar and eighty –seven cents? At seven, Jim’s dinner was ready for him.

Jim was never late. Della held the watch chain in her hand and sat near the door where he always entered. Then she heard his step in the hall and her face lost color for a moment. She often said little prayers quietly, about simple everyday things. And now she said: “Please God, make him think I’m still pretty”.

The door opened and Jim stepped in. he looked very thin and he was not smiling. Poor fellow, he was only twenty-two- and with a family to take care of! He needed a new coat and he had nothing to cover his cold hands.Jim stopped inside the door. He was as quiet as a hunting dog when it is near a bird. His eyes looked strangely at Della, and there was an expression in them that she could not understand. It filled her with fear. It was not anger, nor surprise, nor anything she had been ready for. He simply looked at her with that strange expression on his face.

Della went to him.

“Jim, dear” she cried. “Don’t look at me like that. I had my hair cut off and sold it. I couldn’t live through Christmas without giving you a gift. My hair will grow again. You won’t care, will you? My hair grows very fast. It’s Christmas. Jim let’s be happy. You don’t know what a nice- what a beautiful nice gift I got for you. “You’ve cut off your hair?” asked Jim slowly. He seemed to labor to understand what had happened. He seemed not to feel sure he knew.”Cut it off and sold it” said Della. “Don’t you like me now? I’m me, Jim I’m the same without my hair” Jim looked around the room. “You don’t have to look for it.” said Della. “It’s sold, I tell you – sold and gone, too. It’s the night before Christmas, boy. Be good to me, because I sold it for you. Maybe the hairs of my head could be counted” she said, “but no one could ever count my love for you. Shall we eat dinner Jim”?

The story of an hour

    Knowing that Mrs. Mallard was affected with a heart trouble, great care was taken to break to her as gently as possible the news of her husband’s death.

It was her sister Josephine who told her, in broken sentences. Her husband’s friend Richards was there, too near her. It was he who had been in the newspaper office when intelligence of the railroad disaster was received, with Brently Mallard’s name leading the list of “killed”. He had only taken the tine assure himself of its truth be a second telegram, and has hastened to forestall any less careful, less tender friend in bearing it sad message.

She did not hear the story as many women have heard the same, with a paralyzed inability to accept its significance. She wept at once, with sudden, wild abandonment, in her sister’s arms. When the storm of grief had spent itself she went away to her room alone. She would have no one follow her.

The stood, facing the open window, a comfortable roomy armchair into this she sank, pressed down by a physical exhaustion that haunted her body and seemed to reach into her soul.

She would see into Open Square before her house the tops of trees that were all aquiver with the new spring life. The delicious breath of rain was in the air. In the street below a peddler was crying his wares. The notes of a distant song which someone was singing reached her faintly, and countless sparrows were twittering in the eaves.

There were patches of blue sky her and there through the clouds that had met and piled above the other in the west facing her window. She sat with her head thrown back upon the cushion of the chair quite motionless, except when a sob came up into her throat and shook her, as a child who has cried to sleep continues to sob in its dreams.

She was young, with affair, calm face, whose lines bespoke repression and even a certain strength. But now there was a dull stare in her eyes, whose gaze was fixed away of yonder on one of those patches of blue sky. It was not a glance of reflection, but rather indicated a suspension of intelligent thought. There was something to her and she was waiting for it, fearfully, what was it? She did not know; it was too subtle and elusive to name. But she felt it, creeping out the sky, reaching towards her through the sound, the scents, its color fill the air.

Now her bosom rose and fell tumultuously. She was beginning to recognize this thing that was approaching to possess her, and she was striving to beat it back with her will-as powerless as her two white slender hands would have been.

When she abandoned herself a little whispered word escaped her slightly parted lips. She said it over and over under her breath; “Free, Free, Free”. The vacant stare and the look of terror that had followed it went from her eyes. They stayed keen and bright. Her pulses beat fast and the coursing blood warmed and relaxed every inch of her body.

She did not stop to ask if it were not a monstrous joy that held her. A clear and exalted perception enabled her to dismiss the suggestion as trivial.

She knew that would weep again whom she saw the kind; tender hands folded in death; the face, hat had never looked save with love upon her, fixed and gray and dead. But she saw beyond that bitter moment a long procession of years to come that would belong to her absolutely. And opened and spread her arms out to them in welcome.

There would be no one to live for during those coming years; she would live for herself. There would be no powerful will bonding her in that blind persistence with which men and women believe they have a right to impose a private will upon a fellow- creature. A kind intention or a cruel intention made it seem no less a crime as she looked upon it in that brief moment of illumination.

Free. Body and soul free! She kept whispering. Josephine was kneeling before the closed door with her lips to the keyhole, open the door-you will make yourself ill, what are you doing. Louise? For heaven’s sake open the door.

“Go away I’m not making myself ill”. No, she was drinking in a very elixir of life through that open window. Her fancy was running rate along those days ahead of her. Spring days and summer days and any sort of days that would be her own. She breathed a quick prayer that life might be long. It was only yesterday she had thought with a shudder that life might be short.

She arose at length and opened the door to her sister’s importunities. There was a feverish triumph in her eyes, and she carried herself unwittingly like a goddess of victory. She clasped her sister’s waist, and together they descended the stairs, Richards stood waiting with latchkey it was Brently Mallard who entered, a little travel- stained, composedly carrying his grip- sack and umbrella. He had been far from the scene of the accident, and did not even know there had been one. He stood amazed at Josephine’s piercing cry; at Richards’ quick motion to screen him from the view of his wife.

But Richards was too late.

When the doctors came they said she had dies of heart disease.

Disease of joy that kills.





A Handful of Dates

    I must have been very young at the time. While, I don’t remember exactly how old I was. I do remember that when people saw me with my grandfather they would pat me of the head and give my check a pinch- things they didn’t do to my grandfather. The strange thing was that I never used to go out with my father; rather it was my grandfather who would take me with him wherever he went, except for the mornings when I would go to the mosque to learn the Holy Koran. The mosque, the river and the fields- these were the landmarks in our life. While most of the children of my age grumbled at having to go to the mosque to learn the Koran. I used to love it. The reason was, no doubt, that I was quick at learning by heart and the Sheikh always asked me to stand up and recite the Chapter of the Merciful whenever we had visitors, who would pat me on my head and check just as people did when they saw me with my grandfather.

Yes, I used to love the mosque, and I loved the river too. Directly we finished our Koran reading in the morning. I would throw down my wooden slate and dart off, quickly to my mother, hurriedly swallow down my breakfast, and run off for the river. When tired of swimming about I would sit on the bank and gaze at the strip of water that wound away eastwards and hid behind a thick wood of acacia trees. I loved to give rein to my imagination and picture to myself a tribe of giants living behind that wood, people tall and thin with white beards and sharp noses, like my grandfather. Before my grandfather ever replied to my many questions he would rub the tip of his nose with his forefinger; as for his beard, it was soft and luxuriant and as white as the cotton wool- never in my life I seen anything of a purer whiteness or greater beauty. My grandfather must also have been extremely tall, for I never saw anyone in the whole area address him without having to look up at him, nor did I see him enter a house without having to bend so low that I was put in mind of the river wound behind the wood of the acacia trees. I loved him and would imagine myself, when I grew to be a man, tall and slender like him, walking along with strides.

I believe I was his favourite grandchild; no wonder, for my cousins were stupid and I –so they say- was an intelligent child. I used to know when my grandfather wanted me to laugh, when to be silent; also I would remember the times for his prayers and would bring him his prayer-rug and fill the ewer for his ablutions without his having to ask me. When he had nothing else to do he enjoyed listening to me reciting to him from the Koran in a lilting voice, and I could tell from his face that he was moved.

One day I asked my grandfather about our neighbor Masood. I said to him; “I fancy you don’t like our neighbor Masood?”

To which he answered, having rubbed the tip of his nose: “He’s an indolent man and I don’t like such people’.

I said to him: ‘what and indolent man?

My grandfather lowered his head for a moment, then looking across at the wide expanse of field, he said: ‘Do you see it stretching out from the edge of the desert up to the Nile bank? A hundred feddans. Do you see all those date palms? All those trees –sant, acacia and sayal? All this fell into Masood’s lap, was inherited by him from his father’.

Taking advantage of the silence that had descended upon my grandfather; I turned my gaze from him to the vast area defined by his words. ‘I don’t care’ I told myself ‘who owns those date palms, those trees or this black, cracked earth- all I know is that it’s the arena for my dreams and my playground’.

My grandfather then continued: ‘Yes, my boy, forty years ago all this belonged to Masood- two thirds of it is now mine’.

This was news to me for I had imagined that the land had belonged to my grandfather ever since God’s Creation.

‘I didn’t own a single feddan when I first set foot in this village. Masood was then the owner of all these riches. The position has changed now, though, and I think that before Allah calls me to him I shall have bought the remaining third as well.

I do not know why it was I felt fear at my grandfather’s words- and pity for our neighbor Masood. How I wished my grandfather wouldn’t do what he’d said! I remembered Masood’s singing, he beautiful voice and powerful laugh that resembled the gurgling of water. My grandfather never used to laugh.

I asked my grandfather why Masood had sold his land. “Women” and from the way my grandfather pronounced the word I felt that women was something terrible. ‘Masood, my boy, was a much-married man. Each time he married he sold me a feddan or two’ I made the quick calculation that Masood must have married some ninety women. Then I remembered his three wives, his shabby appearance, his lame donkey and his galabia. I had all but rid my mind of the thoughts that jostled in it when I saw the man approaching us, and my grandfather and I exchanged glances.

‘We’ll be harvesting the dates today’ said Masood. ‘Don’t you want to be there’?

I felt, though that he did not really want my grandfather to attend. My grandfather, however, jumped to his feet and I saw that his eyes sparkled momentarily with an intense brightness. He pulled me by the hand and we went off to the harvesting of Masood’s dates.

Someone brought my grandfather a stool covered with an ox-hide, while I remained standing. There was a vast number of people there, but though I knew them all, I found myself for some reasons, watching Masood: aloof from that great gathering of people he stood as though it were no concern of his, despite the fact that the date palms to be harvested were his own. Sometimes his attention would be caught by the sound of a huge clump of dates crashing down from on high. Once he shouted up at the boy perched on the very summit of the date palm: ‘be careful you don’t cut the heart of the palm’.

No one paid any attention to what he said and the boy seated at the very summit of the date palm continued quickly and energetically, to work away at the branch with his sickle till the clump of dated began to drop like something descending from the heaven.

I however, had begun to think about Masood’s phrase ‘the heart of the  palm’ I picture the palm tree as something with feeling, something possessed of heart that throbbed. I remembered Masood’s remark to me when he had once seen me playing about with the branch of a young palm tree: ‘Palm trees my boy, like humans, experience joy and suffering’. And I had felt an inward and unreasoned embarrassment.

When I again looked at the expanse of ground stretching before me I saw my young companions swarming like ants around the trunks of the palm tree, gathering up dates and eating most of them. The dates were collected into high mounds. I saw people coming along and weighting them into measuring bins and pouring them into sacks, of which I counted thirty. The crowd of people broke up, except for Hussein the merchant, Mousa the owner of the field next to ours on the east, and two men I’d never seen before.

I heard a low whistling sound and saw that my grandfather had fallen asleep. Then I noticed that Masood had not changed his stance, except that he had placed a stalk in his mouth and was munching at it like someone suffered with food who doesn’t know what to do with the mouthful he still has.

Suddenly my grandfather woke up, jumped to his feet and walked towards the sacks of dates. He was followed by Hussein the merchant, Mousa the owner of the field next to ours, and the two strangers. I glanced at Masood and saw that he was making his way towards us with extreme slowness, like a man who wants to retreat but whose feet insist on going forward. They formed a circle round the sacks of dates and began examining them some taking a date or two to eat. My grandfather gave me a fistful, which I began munching I saw Masood filling the palms of both hands with dates and bringing them up close to his nose, then returning them.

Then I saw them dividing up the sacks between them. Hussein the merchant took ten; each of the strangers took five. Mousa the owner of the field next to ours on the eastern side took five, and my grandfather took five. Understanding nothing, l looked at Masood and saw that his eyes were darting about to left and right like two mice that have lost their way home.

‘you’re still fifty pounds in debt to me’. said my grandfather to Masood. ‘we’ll talk about it later’.

Hussein called his assistants and they brought along donkeys, the two strangers produced camels, and the sacks of dates were loaded into them. I felt myself drawing close to Masood, felt my hand stretch out towards his as though I wanted to touch him. I heard him make a noise in his throat like the rasping of a lamb being slaughtered. For some unknown reason, I experienced a sharp sensation of pain in my chest. I ran off into the distance hearing my grandfather call after me. I hesitated a little, and then continued on my way. I felt at that moment that I hated him. Quickening my pace. It was as though I carried within me a secret I wanted to rid myself of. I reached the river bank near the bend it made behind the wood of acacia trees. Then, without knowing why, I put my finger into my throat and spewed up the dates I’d eaten.

Short Story: ‘Luck’ by Mark Twain

Our story today is called, “Luck.” It was written by Mark Twain. Here is Shep O’Neal with the story.

I was at a dinner in London given in honor of one of the most celebrated English military men of his time. I do not want to tell you his real name and titles. I will just call him Lieutenant General Lord Arthur Scoresby.

I can not describe my excitement when I saw this great and famous man. There he sat. The man himself, in person, all covered with medals. I could not take my eyes off him. He seemed to show the true mark of greatness. His fame had no effect on him.

The hundreds of eyes watching him, the worship of so many people did not seem to make any difference to him.

Next to me sat a clergyman, who was an old friend of mine. He was not always a clergyman. During the first half of his life, he was a teacher in the military school at Woolwich. There was a strange look in his eye as he leaned toward me and whispered, “Privately – he is a complete fool.” He meant, of course, the hero of our dinner.

This came as a shock to me. I looked hard at my friend. I could not have been more surprised if he had said the same thing about Napoleon, or Socrates, or Solomon.

But I was sure of two things about the clergyman. He always spoke the truth. And his judgement of men was good. Therefore, I wanted to find out more about our hero as soon as I could.

Some days later I got a chance to talk with the clergyman and he told me more. These are his exact words:

“About forty years ago, I was an instructor in the military academy at Woolwich, when young Scoresby was given his first examination. I felt extremely sorry for him. Everybody answered the questions well, intelligently, while he – why, dear me – he did not know anything, so to speak. He was a nice, pleasant young man. It was painful to see him stand there and give answers that were miracles of stupidity.

“I knew of course that when examined again he would fail and be thrown out. So, I said to myself, it would be a simple, harmless act to help him, as much as I could.

“I took him aside and found he knew a little about Julius Caesar’s history. But he did not know anything else. So I went to work and tested him and worked him like a slave. I made him work, over and over again, on a few questions about Caesar which I knew he would be asked.

“If you will believe me, he came through very well on the day of the examination. He got high praise, too, while others who knew a thousand times more than he were sharply criticized. By some strange, lucky accident, he was asked no questions but those I made him study. Such an accident does not happen more than once in a hundred years.

“Well, all through his studies, I stood by him, with the feeling a mother has for a disabled child. And he always saved himself, by some miracle.

“I thought that what is the end would destroy him would be the mathematics examination. I decided to make his end as painless as possible. So, I pushed facts into his stupid head for hours. Finally, I let him go to the examination to experience what I was sure would be his dismissal from school. Well, sir, try to imagine the result. I was shocked out of my mind. He took first prize! And he got the highest praise.

“I felt guilty day and night – what I was doing was not right. But I only wanted to make his dismissal a little less painful for him. I never dreamed it would lead to such strange, laughable results.

“I thought that sooner or later one thing was sure to happen: The first real test once he was through school would ruin him.

“Then, the Crimean War broke out. I felt that sad for him that there had to be a war. Peace would have given this donkey a chance to escape from ever being found out as being so stupid. Nervously, I waited for the worst to happen. It did. He was appointed an officer. A captain, of all things! Who could have dreamed that they would place such a responsibility on such weak shoulders as his.

“I said to myself that I was responsible to the country for this. I must go with him and protect the nation against him as far as I could. So, I joined up with him. And away we went to the field.

“And there – oh, dear, it was terrible. Mistakes, fearful mistakes – why, he never did anything that was right – nothing but mistakes. But, you see, nobody knew the secret of how stupid he really was. Everybody misunderstood his actions. They saw his stupid mistakes as works of great intelligence. They did, honestly! His smallest mistakes made a man in his right mind cry – and shout and scream, too – to himself, of course. And what kept me in a continual fear was the fact that every mistake he made increased his glory and fame.

“I kept saying to myself that when at last they find out about him, it will be like the sun falling out of the sky.

“He continued to climb up, over the dead bodies of his superiors. Then, in the hottest moment of one battle down went our colonel. My heart jumped into my mouth, for Scoresby was the next in line to take his place. Now, we are in for it, I said.

“The battle grew hotter. The English and their allies were steadily retreating all over the field. Our regiment occupied a position that was extremely important. One mistake now would bring total disaster. And what did Scoresby do this time? He just mistook his left hand for his right hand…that was all. An order came for him to fall back and support our right. Instead, he moved forward and went over the hill to the left.

We were over the hill before this insane movement could be discovered and stopped. And what did we find? A large and unsuspecting Russian army waiting! And what happened? Were we all killed? That is exactly what would have happened in ninety-nine cases out of a hundred. But no – those surprised Russians thought that no one regiment by itself would come around there at such a time.

“It must be the whole British army, they thought. They turned tail. Away they went over the hill and down into the field in wild disorder, and we after them. In no time, there was the greatest turn-around you ever saw. The allies turned defeat into a sweeping and shining victory.

“The allied commander looked on, his head spinning with wonder, surprise and joy. He sent right off for Scoresby, and put his arms around him and hugged him on the field in front of all the armies.

“Scoresby became famous that day as a great military leader, honored throughout the world. That honor will never disappear while history books last.

“He is just as nice and pleasant as ever, but he still does not know enough to come in, out of the rain. He is the stupidest man in the universe.

“Until now, nobody knew it but Scoresby and myself. He has been followed, day by day, year by year, by a strange luck. He has been a shining soldier in all our wars for years. He has filled his whole military life with mistakes. Every one of them brought him another honorary title.

“Look at his chest, flooded with British and foreign medals. Well, sir, every one of them is the record of some great stupidity or other. They are proof that the best thing that can happen to a man is to be born lucky. I say again, as I did at the dinner, Scoresby’s a complete fool.”












The White Heron

Today’s story is called “The White Heron.” It was written by Sarah Orne Jewett. Here is Kay Gallant with the story.

Storyteller: The forest was full of shadows as a little girl hurried through it one summer evening in June. It was already eight o’clock and Sylvie wondered if her grandmother would be angry with her for being so late.

Every evening Sylvie left her grandmother’s house at five-thirty to bring their cow home. The old animal spent her days out in the open country eating sweet grass. It was Sylvie’s job to bring her home to be milked. When the cow heard Sylvie’s voice calling her, she would hide among the bushes.

This evening it had taken Sylvie longer than usual to find her cow. The child hurried the cow through the dark forest, following a narrow path that led to her grandmother’s home. The cow stopped at a small stream to drink. As Sylvie waited, she put her bare feet in the cold, fresh water of the stream.

She had never before been alone in the forest as late as this. The air was soft and sweet. Sylvie felt as if she were a part of the gray shadows and the silver leaves that moved in the evening breeze.

She began thinking how it was only a year ago that she came to her grandmother’s farm. Before that, she had lived with her mother and father in a dirty, crowded factory town. One day, Sylvie’s grandmother had visited them and had chosen Sylvie from all her brothers and sisters to be the one to help her on her farm in Vermont.

The cow finished drinking, and as the nine-year-old child hurried through the forest to the home she loved, she thought again about the noisy town where her parents still lived.

Suddenly the air was cut by a sharp whistle not far away. Sylvie knew it wasn’t a friendly bird’s whistle. It was the determined whistle of a person. She forgot the cow and hid in some bushes. But she was too late.

“Hello, little girl,” a young man called out cheerfully. “How far is it to the main road?” Sylvie was trembling as she whispered “two miles.” She came out of the bushes and looked up into the face of a tall young man carrying a gun.

The stranger began walking with Sylvie as she followed her cow through the forest. “I’ve been hunting for birds,” he explained, “but I’ve lost my way. Do you think I can spend the night at your house?” Sylvie didn’t answer. She was glad they were almost home. She could see her grandmother standing near the door of the farm house.

When they reached her, the stranger put down his gun and explained his problem to Sylvie’s smiling grandmother.

“Of course you can stay with us,” she said. “We don’t have much, but you’re welcome to share what we have. Now Sylvie, get a plate for the gentleman!”

After eating, they all sat outside. The young man explained he was a scientist, who collected birds. “Do you put them in a cage?” Sylvie asked. “No,” he answered slowly, “I shoot them and stuff them with special chemicals to preserve them. I have over one hundred different kinds of birds from all over the United States in my study at home.”

“Sylvie knows a lot about birds, too,” her grandmother said proudly. “She knows the forest so well, the wild animals come and eat bread right out of her hands.”

“So Sylvie knows all about birds. Maybe she can help me then,” the young man said. “I saw a white heron not far from here two days ago. I’ve been looking for it ever since. It’s a very rare bird, the little white heron. Have you seen it, too?” He asked Sylvie. But Sylvie was silent. “You would know it if you saw it,” he added. “It’s a tall, strange bird with soft white feathers and long thin legs. It probably has its nest at the top of a tall tree.”

Sylvie’s heart began to beat fast. She knew that strange white bird! She had seen it on the other side of the forest. The young man was staring at Sylvie. “I would give ten dollars to the person who showed me where the white heron is.”

That night Sylvie’s dreams were full of all the wonderful things she and her grandmother could buy for ten dollars.

Sylvie spent the next day in the forest with the young man. He told her a lot about the birds they saw. Sylvie would have had a much better time if the young man had left his gun at home. She could not understand why he killed the birds he seemed to like so much. She felt her heart tremble every time he shot an unsuspecting bird as it was singing in the trees.

But Sylvie watched the young man with eyes full of admiration. She had never seen anyone so handsome and charming. A strange excitement filled her heart, a new feeling the little girl did not recognize…love.

At last evening came. They drove the cow home together. Long after the moon came out and the young man had fallen asleep Sylvie was still awake. She had a plan that would get the ten dollars for her grandmother and make the young man happy. When it was almost time for the sun to rise, she quietly left her house and hurried through the forest. She finally reached a huge pine tree, so tall it could be seen for many miles around. Her plan was to climb to the top of the pine tree. She could see the whole forest from there. She was sure she would be able to see where the white heron had hidden its nest.

Sylvie’s bare feet and tiny fingers grabbed the tree’s rough trunk. Sharp dry branches scratched at her like cat’s claws. The pine tree’s sticky sap made her fingers feel stiff and clumsy as she climbed higher and higher.

The pine tree seemed to grow taller, the higher that Sylvie climbed. The sky began to brighten in the east. Sylvie’s face was like a pale star when, at last, she reached the tree’s highest branch. The golden sun’s rays hit the green forest. Two hawks flew together in slow-moving circles far below Sylvie. Sylvie felt as if she could go flying among the clouds, too. To the west she could see other farms and forests.

Suddenly Sylvie’s dark gray eyes caught a flash of white that grew larger and larger. A bird with broad white wings and a long slender neck flew past Sylvie and landed on a pine branch below her. The white heron smoothed its feathers and called to its mate, sitting on their nest in a nearby tree. Then it lifted its wings and flew away.

Sylvie gave a long sigh. She knew the wild bird’s secret now. Slowly she began her dangerous trip down the ancient pine tree. She did not dare to look down and tried to forget that her fingers hurt and her feet were bleeding. All she wanted to think about was what the stranger would say to her when she told him where to find the heron’s nest.

As Sylvie climbed slowly down the pine tree, the stranger was waking up back at the farm. He was smiling because he was sure from the way the shy little girl had looked at him that she had seen the white heron.

About an hour later Sylvie appeared. Both her grandmother and the young man stood up as she came into the kitchen. The splendid moment to speak about her secret had come. But Sylvie was silent. Her grandmother was angry with her. Where had she been. The young man’s kind eyes looked deeply into Sylvie’s own dark gray ones. He could give Sylvie and her grandmother ten dollars. He had promised to do this, and they needed the money. Besides, Sylvie wanted to make him happy.

But Sylvie was silent. She remembered how the white heron came flying through the golden air and how they watched the sun rise together from the top of the world. Sylvie could not speak. She could not tell the heron’s secret and give its life away.

The young man went away disappointed later that day. Sylvie was sad. She wanted to be his friend. He never returned. But many nights Sylvie heard the sound of his whistle as she came home with her grandmother’s cow.

Were the birds better friends than their hunter might have been? Who can know?

The Gift of Magi

  1. How much has Della put aside for months?

a. one dollar & eighty cents.     b. hundred and eighty seven cents.

c. two dollars                              d. eight seven cents

  1. Why did Della put her money aside?

a. to buy a gift for herself      b. to buy a gift for her spouse.

c. to buy gift for newborn children      d.to live happily with her husband

  1. Where does Della live?

a. in a big nice house         b. in a furnished small room

c. whit her parents                    d. in a small nice house

  1. How much has Mr. James Dillingham Young been paid when his name was placed near the front door?

a. $1.87 a week                               b. a dollar a week

c. 20 dollars a week                         d. 30 dollars a week

  1. The James Dillingham Young were proud of two things. What are they?

a. the watch & the combs          b. the watch & the chain   

c. the watch & the chain     d. the watch and Della’s hair

  1. From where did Jim have his golden watch?

a. he inherited it      b. he sold it to get the money to buy the combs

c. his mother gave it to him              d. he bought it

  1. What’s the colour of Della’s hair?

          a. pretty black        b. brown         c. yellow        d. white

  1. What does Della look like?

a. she is quite fat                     b. she is quite thin     

c. she is an ugly                       d. she is a normal woman 

  1.  Who are the Magi?

a. they are wise men               b. they are wise women

c. they are normal people          d. they are wise children

10. Who has bought Della’s hair?

a. Mr. Sofronie      b. Mrs. Sofronie      c. Miss. Sofronie

d. all the above options are correct.

The feathertop

  1. The character Feathertop is …

a. a young boy           b. a scarecrow     c. Mother Rigby            d. an important man

  1. This story begins in which season?

a. Winter        b. Spring       c. Summer       d. Autumn   

  1. Feathertop gets his name from…

a. the feater in his hat    

b. his hairstyle that looks like a bird 

c. his father’s name     d. how good he is at scaring birds

  1. What happens after Feathertop smashes his pipe?

a. He buys a new one                             

 b. He falls in love with Mother Rigby

c. He is not longer a man                      

          d. He leaves Mother Rigby’s house

  1. Mother Rigby has “strange powers”. In the story, they call her a …

a. magician        b. queen        c. doctor      d. witch

  1. Why is Feathertop’s pipe important?

a. Smoking gives him life      b. He loves to smoke

c. The pipe is Mother Rigby’s                

 d. It keeps the birds away

  1. Why does Mother Rigby give Feathertop money?

a.To buy bread      b. To marry the girl he likes

c. To be important, like other men           

d. To give to the little boy

  1. Why does Mother Rigby want to make “something that looks like a man”?

a. To scare the birds away from her corn                      

b. To not be so lonely

c. To show off at the village fair                                   

d. To confuse her neighbours

  1. Mother Rigby makes a scarecrow from an object, her magic…

a. feather         b. pipe      c. pumpkin     d. broomstick

  1. What makes Feathertop realize that he can’t pretend to be something he is not?

a. He falls in love         b. A shopkeeper gives him a job

c. A little boy says Feathertop’s face is a pumpkin

d. Mother Rigby creates a magic spell. 


A handful of dates

1-     The main character in “ A handful of dates” is

a-      the dates sellers.   b.  the dates buyers                    c.the boy               d. Masoud

2-     Unlike the other boys of the village, the boy loves to go to mosque for learning because he

a-      feels bored at home.                              

b-     b. quick in keeping Koran by heart

        c.the mosque is close to his home.            

        d.  he loves his teacher

3-     At the end of the story “ A handful of Dates” the boy’s feeling towards his grandfather has

a-             Become stronger.              b. Remained the same.

     c. Changed dramatically.            d,  Become weaker.

4-      “Masood” is represented in  “A handful of Dates” as

a-             A cruel person          b.A victim      c.A hero          d. A greedy man.

5- The grandfather thinks that women are

    a-  Blissful                   b.  Sources of happiness.   

    c. drivers of poverty.    d.  Dear friends.



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