MIS – SEM.5 ASSIGNMENTS

PASTE YOUR ASSIGNMENTS HERE

56 Responses to “MIS – SEM.5 ASSIGNMENTS”

  1. Waleed Ahmed Jabrallah Says:

    Assignment (1)
    Story gives the life meaning

    One day a grandson asked his grandfather to talk him about story give the life meaning, so the grandfather said:
    We have heard a lot about stories that gives our life meaning. But have you ever wondered how these stories are effects in our life.

    When you were born, you were crying and every one around you was smiling… so live your life because one day: flowers will die, stories will end, memories are forgotten and all things come to end, while that time when one door of happiness closes, another opens, but always we look so long at the closed door that we don’t see the one which has opened for us. And also there is no meaning of night without moon, there is no meaning of day without sun, there is no meaning of sea without water. All this are true.

    That is why I would just want to say that life is a book we all read it. Always be happy, always have a smile because remember in this world we are just for a while.

    Live your life because when you die, you are the one who is smiling and every one around you is crying.

    ASSIGNMENT IN (STM) PASSAGE
    1. A
    2. A
    3. D
    4. D
    5.
    6. A
    7. A
    8. B
    9. D
    10. D
    11. B
    12. D

    ASSIGNMENT IN PASSAGE (2)
    1. C
    2. D
    3. C
    4. D
    5. A

    ASSIGNMENT IN PASSAGE (3)
    1. A
    2. A
    3. C
    4. D

  2. mona hassan Says:

    Mona Hassan Ahmed
    (MIS) SEM 5

    Assignment (1)
    Story
    The old man and the young man
    There was an old man put his money in a box, in the first time the young man came to the old man and told him I want a sum of money said to him, the old man go to the fund and take the money, and when to return the money to the old man after they defecate said to him, the old man to return the money to the box.
    The second time the young man came to the old man and told him I want a sum of money said to him, the old man go to the fund and take the money, and when to return the money to the old man after they defecate said to him, the old man to return the money to the fund.
    The third time the young man came to the old man and told him I want a sum of money said to him, the old man go to the fund and take the money, and when to return the money to the old man after they defecate said to him, the old man to return the money to the fund.
    The young man thought that the old man do not need the money did not return the money to the box.
    The last time the young man came to the old man and told him I want a sum of money said to him, the old man go to the fund and take the money, but the young man had no money and asked the old man said to him: (because you did not received the money in the box)

    ASSIGNMENT
    PASSAGE
    1. A
    2. B
    3. D
    4. D
    5.
    6.C
    7. A
    8. B
    9. D
    10. D
    11. B
    12. D

    PASSAGE(1)
    1.C
    2.B
    3.B
    4.C
    5.B

    PASSAGE(2)
    1. C
    2. D
    3. C
    4. D
    5. A

    PASSAGE (3)
    1. A
    2. A
    3. C
    4. D

  3. Anwer Mustafa Abdelaziz Says:

    Assignment(1)
    1. A
    2. A
    3. D
    4. D
    5.C
    6. A
    7. A
    8. B
    9. D
    10. D
    11. B
    12. D
    Assignment(2)

    1. A
    2. D
    3. C
    4. B
    5. A

    ASSIGNMENT IN PASSAGE (3)
    1. A
    2. A
    3. C
    4. D

  4. الصادق محمد سبيل Says:

    All Assigments
    Reading Comprehension questionsb
    1-____B
    2-____B
    3-____D
    4-____B
    5-____A
    6-____A
    7-____A
    8-____A
    9-____B
    10-___D
    11-___C
    12-___A

    Traning on fast reading
    HIV
    1-___C
    2-___A
    3-___B
    4-___C
    5-___B

    WHO
    1-__C
    2-___B
    3-___A
    4-___A
    5-___B

  5. Waleed Ahmed JAbrallah Says:

    Assignment about (AIDS in Sudan)

    Background
    According to the national survey conducted by the Sudan National AIDS Programme SNAP in 2002, Sudan is the most severely affected country in North Africa and the Middle East with an estimated 500,000 people living with HIV/AIDS, and mostly in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Despite the fact that the epidemiological data is limited, it is believed that the country is in the early stages of a generalized HIV/AIDS epidemic, with an almost exclusively heterosexual transmission pattern. The adult prevalence rate of HIV/AIDS has been estimated at 1.6%, with specific population group prevalence rates ranging from 0.5% to 2.5% in the northern part of the country.

    The 2002 survey showed a low awareness of HIV/AIDS, with only 53% of the population being aware of the sexual transmission risk of HIV/AIDS, and a total of 640,000 individuals being infected with HIV. It has been reported that 0.5% limited sentinel surveillance testing during 2004 yielded prevalence rates of 0.95% (18/1900) among pregnant women, 1.9% (9/465) among symptomatic STD patients, and 2.3% (33/1436) among TB patients. False beliefs about HIV transmission were common as were indicators of strong stigma. In fact 44% of respondents said that they would not share a meal with an infected individual, 31% would not nurse a patient, and 30% would not allow an infected child or teacher to attend school.

    To address the HIV/AIDS situation in Sudan, UNDP, with the support of the Global Fund to Fights AIDS Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), launched in April 2005 Fighting HIV/AIDS in Sudan project.

    Objectives
    The project’s ultimate objective is to contribute to reducing HIV/AIDS transmission and mortality in Sudan.

    With this in mind, the project’s specific objectives are as follows:
    • To increase the prevalence of safe behavior among vulnerable populations with a focus on female sex workers, tea sellers, long-distance truck drivers and jail inmates.
    • To establish Voluntary, Confidential Counseling and Testing (VCCT) services and quality Antiretroviral treatment (ART) and support centers for people living with AIDS.
    • To improve knowledge and practice of HIV/AIDS preventive measures by the general adult population during 2004/08, including the use of high quality care services for sexually transmitted infections (STI).
    • To improve screening of blood and blood products for HIV and other blood born infections.
    • To improve knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission among in-school youth.
    • To monitor the trend of the HIV/AIDS epidemic through Second Generation Surveillance in selected high-risk population groups, by measuring behavioral and biological parameters and guide programme planners to realign the programme interventions in line with current and future epidemic trends.

    diabetic assignment

    1) A
    2) B
    3) C
    4) D
    5) C
    6) C
    7) D
    8) A
    9) B
    10) B

  6. Waleed Ahmed JAbrallah Says:

    diabetic assignment
    (questions about diabetic passage)

    the answers:
    1) A
    2) B
    3 ) C
    4 ) D
    5 ) C
    6 ) C
    7 ) D
    8 ) A
    9 ) B
    10) B

  7. mona hassan Says:

    malaria in sudan

    Estimating the burden of malaria is highly needed for evidence based planning of malaria control. In Sudan, malaria has been the subject of a large amount of epidemiological, entomological and biomedical research. Malaria surveillance, as part of the general reporting of health events from health facilities or specific surveillance for epidemic preparedness, provided a wide range of information. This resulted in multiple and diverse sources of information about malaria burden in Sudan, each source serving the purpose for which it was established. The problems with these sources are non-representativeness, variability of the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic criteria used and variability of the indices measured. Some may suffer from underreporting. These sources, therefore, could not directly provide a single valid national indicator of malaria burden. Official figures of incidence and mortality reflected cases reported only from the formal health system. Malaria health burden results from both disability and mortality, so that multiple statistics are needed to describe it. DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) are composite indicators that summarize disability and mortality information in a single number [1]. The DALYs approach would be suitable to express the burden of malaria resulting from fatal episodes as well as non fatal episodes and complications. It would also act as a common index to compare the burden of malaria with that of other diseases. Previous attempts to calculate the burden of malaria in Sudan were made as part of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) study using different indirect methods [2,3].

    No local efforts have previously been made to measure the burden of malaria in terms of DALYs in Sudan, using locally-derived epidemiological data. As part of a project to measure the burden of diseases in Sudan, this study synthesized information about the epidemiology of malaria from different sources to calculate national incidence rate, mortality rate and DALYs lost due to malaria.

    Methods
    A search for local studies and reports providing epidemiological data on malaria in Sudan was conducted. Preliminary estimates of incidence rate, case fatality rate and mortality rate were developed from the data found. The preliminary estimates were processed in the disease modelling computer software, DisMod II, to produce internally consistent mortality and incidence rates, which were used to calculate DALYs lost due to malaria.

    Results
    Malaria incidence in Sudan was estimated to be about 9 million episodes in 2002 and the number of deaths due to malaria was about 44,000. 2,877,000 DALYs were lost in Sudan in 2002 due to malaria mortality, episodes, anaemia and neurological sequelae. Children under five years of age had the highest burden. Males had the highest incidence and mortality, but females lost more DALYs.

    Conclusion
    Formal health system data underestimated malaria burden. The burden estimates can be useful in informing decision making, although uncertainty around them needs to be quantified. Epidemiological research is needed to fill data gaps and update the estimates

  8. mona hassan Says:

    1-(D)
    2-(B)
    3-(C)
    4-(D)
    5-(C)
    6(D)
    7-(D)
    8-(A)
    9-(A)
    10-(C)

  9. Halima Mahdi Ahmed Says:

    AIDS in sudan

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was present in Sudan, primarily in the southern states bordering Uganda and Zaire, where the disease had reached epidemic proportions. There had been a steady increase in AIDS in Khartoum, because of the hundreds of thousands of people emigrating to the capital to escape the civil war and famine. The use of unsterile syringes and untested blood by health care providers clearly contributed to its spread. In spite of the increase in the spread of AIDS, the Sudanese government in 1991 lacked a coherent national AIDS control policy.

    In the late 1970s and early 1980s, the government undertook programs to deal with specific diseases in limited areas, with help from the World Health Organization and other sources. It also initiated more general approaches to the problems of health maintenance in rural areas, particularly in the south. These efforts began against a background of inadequate and unequal distribution of medical personnel and facilities, and events of the late 1980s and early 1990s caused an almost complete breakdown in health care. In 1982 there were nearly 2,200 physicians in Sudan, or roughly one for each 8,870 persons. Most physicians were concentrated in urban areas in the north, as were the major hospitals, including those specializing in the treatment of tuberculosis, eye disorders, and mental illness. In 1981 there were 60 physicians in the south for a population of roughly 5 million or 1 for approximately 83,000 persons. In 1976 there were 2,500 medical assistants, the crucial participants in a system that could not assume the availability of an adequate number of physicians in the foreseeable future. After three years of training and three to four years of supervised hospital experience, medical assistants were expected to be able to diagnose common endemic diseases and to provide simple treatments and vaccinations. There were roughly 12,800 nurses in 1982 and about 7,000 midwives, trained and working chiefly in the north.

    In principle, medical consultation and therapeutic drugs were free. There were, however, private clinics and pharmacies, and they were said to be growing in number in the capital area in the late 1970s and early 1980s. The ever worsening shortage of medical personnel and of pharmacenticals had, however, limited the effectiveness of free treatment. In urban areas, physicians and medical assistants could be seen only after a long wait at the hospitals or clinics at which they served. In rural areas, extended travel as well as long waits were common. In urban and rural areas, the drugs prescribed were often not obtainable from hospital pharmacies. In the Khartoum area, they could be obtained at considerable cost from private pharmacies. In addition to the problems of cost, however, were those posed by difficulties of transportation and inadequate storage facilities. In the south, especially during the rainy season, the roads were often impassable. There and elsewhere, the refrigeration necessary for many pharmaceuticals was not available. All of these difficulties were compounded by inadequacies of stock rotation and inspection. Members of the country’s elite overcame these problems by taking advantage of medical treatment abroad.

    In the mid-1970s, the Ministry of Health began a national program to provide primary health care with emphasis on preventive medicine. The south was expected to be the initial beneficiary of the program, given the dearth of health personnel and facilities there, but other areas were not to be ignored. The basic component in the system was the primary health care center staffed by community health workers and expected to serve about 4,000 persons. Community health care workers received six months of formal training followed by three months of practical work at an existing center, after which they were assigned to a new center. Refresher courses were also planned. The workers were to provide health care information and certain medicines and would refer cases they could not deal with to dispensaries and hospitals. In principle, there would be one dispensary for every 24,000 persons. Of the forty primary health care centers and dispensaries to be completed by 1984, about half were in place by 1981. In addition, local (district) hospitals were to be improved. The program in the south was supported by the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany), which also provided medical advisers. In 1981 the program was most advanced in eastern Al Istiwai Province, but it was too early to assess the effects on the health of the people, and the program had virtually disappeared by 1991.

  10. mahassin abd alltife Says:

    Malaria Consortium in Sudan
    Sudan is the largest country in Africa. The challenges posed by international sanctions, internal conflicts and geography are immense. Despite this, Malaria Consortium has successfully implemented projects in a diverse range of settings, achieving real results in communicable disease control that have improved health and decreased morbidity and mortality.

    Malaria Consortium’s work in Sudan has been focused on Southern Sudan where malaria prevalence is highest and where many health indicators are even worse than those in Darfur. The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 brought to an end a 22-year phase of fighting in a bloody civil war that had raged almost continuously since Sudan gained independence. This state of almost constant war has left the health infrastructure of Southern Sudan in an extremely poor condition. Since 2005 the Government of Southern Sudan’s (GoSS) Ministry of Health (MoH) has transformed from a skeletal body with a few staff to a formal Ministry whose capacity is rapidly increasing. In light of this period of rapid growth, non-governmental organisations (NGOs) have been asked to provide a range of health support. Malaria Consortium has risen to this challenge with its team of 80 staff based in four offices located in Juba, Aweil, Bentiu, and Malakal. Malaria Consortium has been providing support to Southern Sudan since before the signing of the CPA when the Ministry of Health was an exiled secretariat in Nairobi. Since 2006 and the stabilisation of the security situation, Malaria Consortium has had a permanent staff presence based in Southern Sudan
    Malaria Consortium has provided assistance through two broad focus areas. These include support for health systems strengthening and direct implementation support for communicable disease control services.

    Malaria Consortium’s Health Systems Strengthening support is aligned closely to the World Health Organisation’s six health systems building blocks articulated in 2007. Organisational support includes both high level technical support and contextually relevant hands on support for systems implementation. Key achievements in each of the building blocks include the following:

    Service Delivery:

    Technical support for the revision of the Basic Package of Health Services which guides the delivery of services in Southern Sudan
    Technical assistance to develop the Primary Health Care Unit and Primary Health Care Centre treatment guidelines
    Strengthening of support supervision structures for health workers to improve quality of care
    Implementation support for community fever management to improve case management for the most common childhood illnesses
    Support to the Director for Endemic Tropical Diseases to establish an integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Control Programme, including mass drug administration where indicated based on mapping data .
    Health Workforce:

    Mapping of existing health staff by facility in three states. This data was made available for the development of the MoH payroll
    Training of health workers to build capacity around case management
    Training of laboratory staff for improved diagnostic capacity

    Information:

    Mapping of all health facilities in three states in Southern Sudan. Prior to this the MoH had minimal knowledge of the quantity, location and capacity of its own health services. This data underpins meaningful health sector planning in Southern Sudan
    Mapping of neglected tropical diseases to target and inform mass drug administration activities including schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, soil transmitted helminths, and trachoma
    Support for the establishment of the Health Management Information system including revision, procurement and distribution of tools along with training
    Medical Products, Vaccines and Technologies:

    Technical assistance to draft the essential medicines lists that are kept at community health centres
    Support to update and revise pharmaceutical supply lists based on health facility mapping data, ensuring equitable access to services
    Financing:

    Participation in the Health Budget Sector Working Group meetings to plan the MoH annual budget
    Practical support to health sector planning, aiming for efficient use of MoH resources

    Leadership and Governance:

    Supporting the MoH to write the Southern Sudan Malaria Strategic Plan
    Technical assistance provided by drafting the Southern Sudan Monitoring and Evaluation Framework which underpins the Health Management Information System
    Supporting the MoH to write a comprehensive review of neglected tropical diseases and their control in Southern Sudan
    Supporting the MoH to develop a Southern Sudan strategic plan for Neglected Tropical Disease control
    Developing an neglected tropical diseases mapping protocol;
    Malaria Consortium is the Secretariat for the Malaria Technical Working Group, which provides technical support to malaria control interventions in Southern Sudan
    Support to states and counties to improve coordination, identify priorities and establish work plans;
    Co-chairing of the NGO Health Forum to improve the coordination of service delivery in Southern Sudan.

    Malaria Consortium has also assisted the MoH in the direct implementation of its Basic Package of Health Services. Key achievements include:

    The distribution of over 800,000 Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Nets in Southern Sudan providing evidence-based malaria prevention to roughly 1.6 million people for an average of about 3 years.
    The establishment of Community Medicine Distributors to improve access and availability of treatment for the most common causes of childhood illness—malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhoea.
    The improvement of Kala-Azar services at Malakal Teaching Hospital including improved stock management and training of ward staff to improve quality of care for patients.
    The mass drug administration for neglected tropical diseases based on need as determined by risk mapping activities.

  11. mona hassan Says:

    Background
    Estimating the burden of malaria is highly needed for evidence based planning of malaria control. In Sudan, malaria has been the subject of a large amount of epidemiological, entomological and biomedical research. Malaria surveillance, as part of the general reporting of health events from health facilities or specific surveillance for epidemic preparedness, provided a wide range of information. This resulted in multiple and diverse sources of information about malaria burden in Sudan, each source serving the purpose for which it was established. The problems with these sources are non-representativeness, variability of the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic criteria used and variability of the indices measured. Some may suffer from underreporting. These sources, therefore, could not directly provide a single valid national indicator of malaria burden. Official figures of incidence and mortality reflected cases reported only from the formal health system. Malaria health burden results from both disability and mortality, so that multiple statistics are needed to describe it. DALYs (Disability Adjusted Life Years) are composite indicators that summarize disability and mortality information in a single number [1]. The DALYs approach would be suitable to express the burden of malaria resulting from fatal episodes as well as non fatal episodes and complications. It would also act as a common index to compare the burden of malaria with that of other diseases. Previous attempts to calculate the burden of malaria in Sudan were made as part of the GBD (Global Burden of Disease) study using different indirect methods [2,3].

    No local efforts have previously been made to measure the burden of malaria in terms of DALYs in Sudan, using locally-derived epidemiological data. As part of a project to measure the burden of diseases in Sudan, this study synthesized information about the epidemiology of malaria from different sources to calculate national incidence rate, mortality rate and DALYs lost due to malaria.
    Methods
    The study measured the burden of malaria in 2002 for all Sudan. The burden was attributed to mortality and disability from malaria episodes, anaemia and neurological sequelae, as defined in the GBD 2002 [2]. Multiple levels of malaria endemicity are found in Sudan [4], and calculations were based on classification of the 26 states of Sudan into hypoendemic, mesoendemic and hyperendemic areas.

    Data collection
    Relevant published and unpublished studies were found by electronic search in local databases and Pubmed, using the keywords: malaria, Sudan, Africa, case fatality, age distribution, sex distribution, anaemia, cerebral malaria, and neurological sequelae. Postgraduate thesis archives were hand-searched for thesis not indexed in local databases. Research institutes, governmental and non-governmental organizations were contacted and relevant reports obtained. Reference lists were examined for more research papers. Studies and reports were relevant if they provided at least one of the following: incidence, prevalence, mortality rate, case fatality ratio, age or sex distribution of cases or deaths, remission proportion, average duration and disability proportions. There was no restriction regarding the time of study. Studies identified were reviewed systematically and those selected for use in the calculations were the most representative and with the best methodological quality where applicable.

    Demographic variables
    The total population by age and sex for Sudan in 2002 was interpolated from the 1998 and 2003 population projections of the Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics [5]. Age- and sex-specific all cause mortality rates were obtained from life tables developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for Sudan in 2002 using indirect demographic techniques [6]. Total population estimates were used to calculate rates and together with all cause mortality rates served as input for computer based disease modelling.

    Preliminary incidence of malaria
    Figure 1 shows the model used to calculate preliminary malaria incidence rates by age and sex. Completeness of reporting of malaria episodes to the formal health system in 2000 [7] was calculated using Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey (MICS) results for children < 5 years as gold standard [8]. The latter referred to fever episodes for which an antimalarial was prescribed, in the two weeks prior to the survey, while the reported episodes referred to clinically or laboratory confirmed episodes. The calculations were therefore assumed to refer to presumptive malaria. The annual reported episodes number was divided by 26 to derive the average number of episodes in two weeks. The MICS number of episodes was divided by that average to calculate an underreporting ratio which was applied to the annual reported number of episodes in northern Sudan (16 states) and southern Sudan (10 states) in 2002 in all age groups [9,10]. Because of the variable sensitivity and specificity of laboratories in malaria diagnosis [11], the resulting incidence was adjusted downwards using the positive predictive value of fever and other malaria symptoms for a positive blood film, to obtain the true malaria incidence. Several published studies [12-14] and unpublished data (Institute of Endemic Diseases, Sudan) provided predictive values for different areas and seasons. The median of these values (0.3) was used for northern Sudan, while a higher value (0.5) was applied for southern Sudan, the area being hyperendemic for malaria [4]. Malaria surveillance in a village in northern Sudan reported age-sex specific incidence rates [15]. In southern Sudan, the age distribution of fever in the absence of neck stiffness (International Rescue Committee, Sudan, unpublished data) was used as a proxy for malaria age distribution. The age-sex specific rates were used to standardize the studies incidence rates using Sudan population in 2002 and the results used to disaggregate the overall incidence calculated for the two regions by age and sex. The rates for the two regions were combined to produce the national age-sex specific malaria incidence rates.

    Results
    Malaria incidence in Sudan was estimated to be about 9 million episodes in 2002 and the number of deaths due to malaria was about 44,000. 2,877,000 DALYs were lost in Sudan in 2002 due to malaria mortality, episodes, anaemia and neurological sequelae. Children under five years of age had the highest burden. Males had the highest incidence and mortality, but females lost more DALYs.

    Conclusion
    Formal health system data underestimated malaria burden. The burden estimates can be useful in informing decision making, although uncertainty around them needs to be quantified. Epidemiological research is needed to fill data gaps and update the estimates.

  12. mona hassan Says:

    Diabetes
    1- D
    2- B
    3- C
    4- D
    5- C
    6- D
    7- D
    8- A
    9- A
    10- B

  13. wesal babiker osman ali Says:

    NILE COLLEGE
    MEDICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM

    WESAL BABIKER OSMAN

    THE TOPIC IS ABOUT:-
    THE COMMON OR ENDEMIC DISEASE IN SUDAN

    Sleeping sickness

    THE COMMON OR ENDEMIC DISEASE IN SUDAN

    Sleeping sickness

    DEFINITION:-
    Sleeping sickness is infection with organisms carried by certain flies. It results in swelling of the brain.
    CAUSES:-

    Sleeping sickness is caused by two organisms, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosomoa brucei gambiense. The more severe form of the illness is caused by rhodesiense.
    Tsetse flies carry the infection. When an infected fly bites you, painful, red swelling occurs at the site of the bite. The infection then spreads through your blood, causing episodes of fever, headache, sweating, and swelling of the lymph nodes.
    When the infection spreads to the central nervous system, it causes the symptoms typical of sleeping sickness (see below). When it reaches the brain, behavioral changes such as fear and mood swings occur, followed by headache, fever, and weakness. Inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) may develop.
    Risk factors include living in parts of Africa where the disease is found and being bitten by tsetse flies. The disease is extremely rare in the United States, and is only found in travelers who have visited or lived in those African areas.

    SYMPTOMPS:-

    Gambiense infections lead to drowsiness during the day, but insomnia at night. Sleep becomes uncontrollable as the disease gets worse, and eventually leads to coma.
    General symptoms include:
    • Anxiety
    • Drowsiness
    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Increased sleepiness
    • Insomnia at night
    • Mood changes
    • Sweating
    • Swollen lymph nodes all over the body
    • Swollen, red, painful nodule at site of fly bite
    • Uncontrollable urge to sleep
    EXAMS AND TEST:-

    A physical examination may show signs of meningoencephalitis (inflammation of the brain and its covering, the meninges).
    Tests include the following:
    • Albumin levels
    • Blood smear
    • Cerebrospinal fluid tests
    • Complete blood count (CBC)
    • Globulin levels
    • Lymph node aspiration
    Most antibody and antigen test are not very helpful because they can’t distinguish between current and previous infection. Specific IgM levels in the cerebrospinal fluid may be helpful, however.

    TREATMENT:-

    Medications used to treat this disorder include:
    • Eflornithine (for gambiense only)
    • Melarsoprol
    • Pentamidine
    • Suramin (Antrypol)

  14. Walled Ahmed Jabrallah Says:

    Assignment:
    about summarizing the passage (computer crimes) in no more than 50 words

    More operations of our business are controlled by computer information and it’s easy for computer criminals are often able to escape punishment but most computer criminals who are caught blame their bad luck and also they will be denied access to confidential records.

  15. halima mahdi Says:

    Fatigue is one of the most common complaints brought to doctor’s friends and relatives

    Main categories of fatigue
    Physical: physical fatigue is usual a pleasant tiredness
    Pathological: here fatigue is a warning sign or consequence of some underlying physical disorder
    Psychological: Emotional problems and conflicts

  16. halima mahdi Says:

    1- (A)
    2- (B)
    3- (D)
    4- (A)
    5- (D)

  17. Mona Hassan Says:

    Assignment:
    about summarizing the passage (computer crimes) in no more than 50 words

    computer criminal are modify information for his purposes
    crimes are undetected Crimes undetected because not check up on computer but detected by accident or bad luck. Criminals not only unpunished but given good recommendation and benefits because companies are afraid of bad publicity

  18. Mona Hassan Says:

    Fatigus

    Fatigus is very illness it is divided into three categories:
    physical: result of overworking muscles
    Pathological: here fatigue is a warning sign or consequence of some underlying physical disorder
    Psychological fatigue is body’s safely value for expressing repressed emotional conflicts
    Compounded by sleep disturbance

  19. Mona Hassan Says:

    Fatigus
    1- A
    2- B
    3- B
    4- A

  20. Mona Hassan Says:

    Computer crimes
    1- A
    2- B
    3- B
    4- A

  21. Mona Hassan Says:

    Fatigus
    1- A
    2- B
    3- D
    4- B
    5- D

  22. halima mahdi Says:

    Computer crimes
    1- (A)
    2- (B)
    3- (B)
    4-( A)

  23. Mona Hassan Says:

    jaws فكي
    Chew مضغ
    Swallowing البلع
    Incisors القواطع
    Canines أنياب
    molars الأضراس
    Neck الرقبة
    Orthodontist تقويم الاسنان
    Root جذر
    Enamel المينا
    blood vessels الاوعية الدموية
    pulp اللب
    Cavityتجويف
    Gumsاللثة
    dental hygienist صحة الأسنان
    dental surgeonطبيب الأسنان
    discolored teethالأسنان المصفره
    oxidizingالمؤكسدة
    Ultravioletفوق البنفسجي
    Veneersالأغشية
    defective teethالأسنان المعيبة
    false teethالاسنان
    artificial replacementالاستعاضة الصناعية
    dental extractionاستخراج الاسنان
    dental drillحفر اللأسنان
    decayedالتهاوي
    Incisorsالقواطع
    dentine العاجين عاج الأسنان

  24. mahassin abd el-ltife Says:

    pulp اللب
    Cavityتجويف
    Gumsاللثة
    dental hygienist صحة الأسنان
    dental surgeonطبيب الأسنان
    discolored teethالأسنان المصفره
    oxidizingالمؤكسدة
    Ultravioletفوق البنفسجي
    Veneersالأغشية
    defective teethالأسنان المعيبة
    false teethالاسنان
    artificial replacementالاستعاضة الصناعية
    dental extractionاستخراج الاسنان
    dental drillحفر اللأسنان
    decayedالتهاوي
    Incisorsالقواطع
    dentine العاجين عاج الأسنان
    jaws فكي
    Chew مضغ
    Swallowing البلع
    Incisors القواطع
    Canines أنياب
    molars الأضراس
    Neck الرقبة
    Orthodontist تقويم الاسنان
    Root جذر
    Enamel المينا
    blood vessels الاوعية الدموية

  25. mahassin abd el-ltife Says:

    pulp اللب
    Cavityتجويف
    Gumsاللثة
    dental hygienist صحة الأسنان
    dental surgeon طبيب الأسنان
    discolored teethالأسنان المصفره
    oxidizingالمؤكسدة
    Ultravioletفوق البنفسجي
    Veneersالأغشية
    defective teethالأسنان المعيبة
    false teethالاسنان
    artificial replacementالاستعاضة الصناعية
    dental extractionاستخراج الاسنان
    dental drillحفر اللأسنان
    decayedالتهاوي
    Incisorsالقواطع
    dentine العاجين عاج الأسنان
    jaws فكي
    Chew مضغ
    Swallowing البلع
    Incisors القواطع
    Canines أنياب
    molars الأضراس
    Neck الرقبة
    Orthodontist تقويم الاسنان
    Root جذر
    Enamel المينا
    blood vessels الاوعية الدموية

  26. mahassin abd el-ltife Says:

    pulp اللب
    Cavity تجويف
    Gumsاللثة
    dental hygienist صحة الأسنان
    dental surgeon طبيب الأسنان
    discolored teethالأسنان المصفره
    oxidizingالمؤكسدة
    Ultravioletفوق البنفسجي
    Veneersالأغشية
    defective teethالأسنان المعيبة
    false teethالاسنان
    artificial replacementالاستعاضة الصناعية
    dental extractionاستخراج الاسنان
    dental drillحفر اللأسنان
    decayedالتهاوي
    Incisorsالقواطع
    dentine العاجين عاج الأسنان
    jaws فكي
    Chew مضغ
    Swallowing البلع
    Incisors القواطع
    Canines أنياب
    molars الأضراس
    Neck الرقبة
    Orthodontist تقويم الاسنان
    Root جذر
    Enamel المينا
    blood vessels الاوعية الدموية

  27. Halima Mahdi Says:

    meaning word

    fake smile الابتسامة المذيفة
    teeth الاسنان
    jaws الفكاك
    incisors القواطع
    canines الانياب
    molars الاضراس
    crown التاج
    root canal treatment معالجة قناة الجذر
    filling الحشو
    alveolus الحويصلة
    gum اللثة
    dental hygienist مساعد طبيب الاسنان
    Dental Surgeon جراح الاسنان
    Denture طقم الاسنان
    misalignmentl دم انتظام الاسنان
    Bridge سن مذيفة
    Cap سن تعويضية
    Dental extraction انتزاع الاسنان
    dentist طبيب الاسنان
    bleaching التقصير
    discolored teeth اسنان ملونة
    dentistry طب الاسنان
    gum fibers اللياف اللثة
    veneers الاغشية
    defective teeth الاسنان المعيبة

  28. mohamed eltayeb abdelwahid Says:

    pulp اللب
    Cavity تجويف
    Gumsاللثة
    dental hygienist صحة الأسنان
    dental surgeon طبيب الأسنان
    discolored teethالأسنان المصفره
    oxidizingالمؤكسدة
    Ultravioletفوق البنفسجي
    Veneersالأغشية
    defective teethالأسنان المعيبة
    false teethالاسنان
    artificial replacementالاستعاضة الصناعية
    dental extractionاستخراج الاسنان
    dental drillحفر اللأسنان
    decayedالتهاوي
    Incisorsالقواطع
    dentine العاجين عاج الأسنان
    jaws فكي
    Chew مضغ
    Swallowing البلع
    Incisors القواطع
    Canines أنياب
    molars الأضراس
    Neck الرقبة
    Orthodontist تقويم الاسنان
    Root جذر
    Enamel المينا
    blood vessels الاوعية الدموية

  29. Halima Mahdi Says:

    effect of smiles in developing our social relationships :-
    Smile:
    To start your knowledge of other people through a smile, it will facilitate you a lot of things later. May find some people to ridicule and they become infected nervous, but keep in mind that the first interview, do not tell others what you have all of the attributes or potential, although the first impression lasts in some cases, and these attitudes: in personal interviews when applying for work, or when falling in love at first sight …. And then falling into the eternal relationship that will not and can not get rid of them.

    ((Smiles)) message of love, sincerity and dedication, the language is thin and bright colors

    Within joy and happiness to the heart

    Dew drops is to increase the coherence and communication

    ((Smiles)) shift to the goodwill of a tear

    ((Smiles)) go of hatred and hatred from the hearts

    ((Smiles)) teach you the conviction that what you are suffering is in God alone

    Smile greets a woman … her husband actually makes the relationship of love and compatibility

    And the mother went out to small, air Vyazdan intimacy and love

    The scientists said when he defeated smiled as they inspect the victor winning the pleasure

    West ……… finally reached that smile and a social duty

    Because they kill the depression and unity while we know that, but shrink ourselves

    And others shrink

    Psychological comfort

    Love and devotion and to avoid and an amnesty for non –

    Always believed

    Love of life and demand for them

    Acceptance in the community

    Happily ever after

    What a beautiful man and not cry a smile on his lips.

  30. wesal babiker osman Says:

    Medical Terminology Meaning
    Smile الإبتسامه
    True Smile الإبتسامه الحقيقيه
    Fake Smile الإبتسامه المزيفه
    Hard Bone عظمي بشده
    Jaws فك
    Chew أمضغ
    Incisors قواطع
    Canines أنياب
    Cuspids الأنياب
    Grip قبضه
    Premolars قبل الأضراس
    Bicuspids ثنائية الأنياب
    Grind طحن
    Molars الأضراس
    Crush سحق أوطحن
    Crown سن أبيض ظاهر أو التاج
    Gums اللثه
    Neck العنق
    Roots الجذر
    Enamel مينا الأسنان
    Dentine عاج الأسنان
    Bulk حجم
    Pulp اللب
    Blood vessels الأوعيه الدمويه
    Protective layer طبقه واقيه
    A rough surface على سطح خشن
    Gum fibres ألياف اللثه
    Alveolus حويصله
    Socket مقبس
    Cavity تجويف
    Erupts يثور أو ينفجر
    Dent-/o- عرائن
    Dens سن
    Gingiva لثه
    Odous سن
    Dental Hygienist مساعد طبيب الأسنان
    Preventive المانع
    Dental surgeon جراح الأسنان
    Qualified مؤهل
    Dentistry طب الأسنان
    Treatment العلاج
    Bone عظام
    Soft tissue النسيج الناعم
    Orthodontist تقويم الأسنان
    Specializing التخصص
    Bleaching تبييض
    Discolored teeth الأسنان المُشَوَّهة
    Chemical oxidizing agent عامل التأكسد الكيميائي
    Exposure التعرّض
    Ultraviolet light الضوء فوق البنفسجي
    Bonding الإلتِصاق أوالترابط
    Plastic resins الراتنجات البلاستيكيه
    Veneers الأغشية
    Acrylic الأكريليك
    Porcelain الخزف
    Repair التصليح
    Restore أعد
    Damaged متضرّر
    Defective teeth الأسنان المعيوبة
    Brace الشيال
    Bridge الجسر
    False teeth الأسنان الصناعية
    Natural teeth الأسنان الطبيعية
    A gap فجوة
    Artificial replacement البديل الإصطناعي
    Dental extraction إنتزاع الأسنان
    Denture طقم الأسنان
    Artificial teeth الأسنان الإصطناعيه
    Metal plate الصفيحة أو الصحن المعدني
    Gingivectomy استئصال اللثه
    Root canal قناة الجذر
    Decayed pulp اللب الفاسد
    Drilling الحفر
    Old Filling prior قبل ملء القديمه
    Dental drill مثقاب الأسنان
    Diseased tooth الأسنان المريضه
    Filling الحشو
    A chipped أي مُقَطَّع
    Decayed فَاسِد

  31. Anwer Mustafa Abdelaziz Says:

    Major Assignment
    Summary
    Arthritis and reheuatism are diseases that produce iflammation of connective tissue.Treatmrnt include heat,exercises,and drugs that reduce pain.Besides osteoarthitis many noninfectious disease can limit activities of the elderly.

    Answer true or false
    1\ F
    2\T
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T

    Complete the following sentences by chosing the most correct answer

    1\C
    2\b
    3\b
    4\c

    The feathertop

    1\b
    2\b
    3\a
    4\d
    5\d
    6\a
    7\c
    8\a
    9\d
    10\c

  32. Talal mohammed Says:

    summury

    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases that produce inflamation . Treat may include heat , exercise and drugs .
    Besides osteoarthritis, many other noninfectious dieases can limit the activities of the elderly.

    complete the following sentence :
    1-c
    2-b
    3-b
    4-c

  33. mohamed eltayeb abdelwahid Says:

    Summary
    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases that produce inflammation or degeneration of connective tissue , predominantly strikes women between 20 and 60 .
    Treatment may include heat,exercises,and drugs that reduce pain and inflammation.

    Answer true or false
    1\ F
    2\F
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T

    Complete the following sentences by chosing the most correct answer

    1\C
    2\B
    3\B
    4\A

  34. Talal mohammed Says:

    Arthritis and reheuatism are diseases that produce iflammation .
    Treatment may include heat,exercises,and drugs .
    Besides osteoarthritis,many other noninfecious diseases can linit the activities of the elderly.

    Answer true or false
    1\ F
    2\F
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T
    Complete the following sentences by chosing the most correct answer

    1\C
    2\B
    3\B
    4\C

  35. mohamed eltayeb abdelwahid Says:

    Summary
    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases that produce inflammation or degeneration of connective tissue, predominantly strikes women between 20 and 60.
    Treatment may include heat,exercises, and drugs that reduce pain and inflammation.

    Answer true or false
    1\ F
    2\F
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T

    Complete the following sentences by chosing the most correct answer

    1\C
    2\b
    3\b
    4\A

  36. amer el-dirdir Says:

    Arthritis and rheumatism

    Arthritis and rheumatism are general name for approximately 100 disease that produce inflammation of connective tissue.
    However the most common rheumatism disease is a non-infection , be side the osteoporosis often leads to fracture, many conditions conspire to decrease the sensory of the elderly.

    Answer true or false
    1\ F
    2\F
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T
    Complete the following sentences by choosing the most correct answer

    1\C
    2\B
    3\B
    4\C

  37. abdel rahman mustafa Says:

    1. Summary
    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases that produce inflammation of connective tissue. Treatment includes heat, exercises and drugs that reduce pain. Besides osteoarthritis many noninfectious disease can limit activities of the elderly.
    True or false
    1\ F
    2\T
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T
    Complete the following sentences by choosing the most correct answer
    1\C
    2\b
    3\b
    4\c
    The Feathertop
    1\b
    2\b
    3\a
    4\d
    5\d
    6\a
    7\c
    8\a
    9\d
    10\c

  38. Aymen Mahjoub Ali Says:

    assignment
    arthritis and rheumatismassignment (summary)

    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases that produce inflammation of connective tissue. Treatment includes heat, exercises and drugs. Besides osteoarthritis, the senses of taste and smell also deteriorate in old age.

    the feathertop

    1- b
    2- b
    3- a
    4- d
    5- d
    6- a
    7- c
    8- a
    9- d
    10- c

  39. elsadig mohamed sbeel Says:

    major summary

    Arthritis and rheumatism are inflammation diseases or degeneration of connective tissue.
    these disease are primariy offect younger people, rheumatism fever like bacterial infection that occurs most in teenager and women. osteoarthritis noninfection disease a condition in whoch bone more brittle and to decrease the sensory preception.

    Answer True or Flase
    1/f. 2/f. 3/t. 4/f. 5/t.

    Feathertop by nathainel hawthorne
    1/c. 2/a. 3/a. 4/d. 5/d. 6/a. 7/c. 8/a. 9/d. 10/b.

    Summary:
    the long cold winter was gone at last but the spring starte to come warm days and growth come up of, green corn plants through the soil in the long winter months the animals and brids were hungery. they flow down to eat them.
    mother rigby can do anything, a woman with strange powers she can make water run, uphill planning to make something that would look like a man.

  40. elsadig mohammed sbeel Says:

    Chew مضغ
    Swallowing البلع
    Incisors القواطع
    Canines أنياب
    molars الأضراس
    Neck الرقبة
    Orthodontist تقويم الاسنان
    Root جذر
    Enamel المينا
    blood vessels الاوعية الدموية
    pulp اللب
    Cavity تجويف
    Gumsاللثة
    dental hygienist صحة الأسنان
    dental surgeon طبيب الأسنان
    discolored teethالأسنان المصفره
    oxidizingالمؤكسدة
    Ultravioletفوق البنفسجي
    Veneersالأغشية
    defective teethالأسنان المعيبة
    false teethالاسنان
    artificial replacementالاستعاضة الصناعية
    dental extractionاستخراج الاسنان
    dental drillحفر اللأسنان
    decayedالتهاوي
    Incisorsالقواطع
    dentine العاجين عاج الأسنان
    jaws فكي

  41. Waleed Ahmed Jabrallah Says:

    sheet tiopic (how to write a good summary)
    summarizing for (arthritis and rheumatism)

    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases that produce inflammation of connective tissue. Treatment includes heat, exercises & drugs. Besides osteoarthritis many noninfectious disease can limit activities of the elderly.

    ………………………………………………………………………………………

    answers of the feathertop questions:

    1……..(b)
    2……..(b)
    3……..(a)
    4……..(b)
    5……..(d)
    6……..(a)
    7……..(c)
    8……..(a)
    9……..(d)
    10……(c)

    ………………………………………………………………………………….
    summarizing for (feathertop)

    This story started with spring season, Feathertop gets his name from the feater in his hat. Feathertop’s pipe important because smoking gives him life. Finally Feathertop realize that a little boy says his face is a pumpkin.

  42. Mona Hassan Says:

    Arthritis and rheumatism

    Summary

    Arthritis is infection diseases that produce from degeneration connective tissue, Osteoarthritis is noninfectious disease, the sensory perception of the elderly relates to sight, hearing, and smell sense.

    True or false
    1\ F
    2\T
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T

    Complete the following sentences by choosing the most correct answer
    1- C
    2- B
    3- C
    4- A

  43. Halima Mahdi Says:

    Arthritis and rheumatism

    arthritis and rheumatism is a bacterial infection mostly in children or teenagers.
    cataracts becomes opaque and sometimes swells or shrinks and interferes with vision .
    deterioration in the inner ear cause old age .

  44. Halima Mahdi Says:

    arthritis and rheumatism true or fals
    1- f
    2- f
    3- t
    4- t
    5- t

  45. Mona Hassan Says:

    summarizing for (feathertop)

    The witch Mother Rigby builds a scarecrow to protect her garden.made a scarecrow to frighten the crows, Judge Gookin , and the two begin to fameets the Scarecrow, the daughter of Judge Gookinll in love. But when Polly gaze into a bewitched mirror, they see Feathertop reflected as a scarecrow
    and the now-terrified and anguished Scarecrow rushes back to Mother Rigby

    the warm days of spring started green corn plants began to show After the long winter months, the crows were hungry Old Mother Rigby did not black birds to eat her corn

  46. Mona Hassan Says:

    ((((((((((((((The True assigment))))))))))))))

    summarizing for (feathertop)

    the witch Mother Rigby builds a scarecrow to protect her greencorn plants .made a scarecrow to frighten the crows, Judge Gookin meets the Scarecrow, and send it into town to woo Polly Gookin, the daughter of Judge Gookin, and the two begin to fall in love. But when Polly gaze into a bewitched mirror, they see Feathertop reflected as a scarecrow

    The Feathertop
    1\ B
    2\ A
    3\ A
    4\ B
    5\ D
    6\ D
    7\ C
    8\ A
    9\ B
    10\C

  47. Halima Mahdi Says:

    summarizing for (feathertop)
    Described as the story reaches the end of winter, Feathertop gets his name from the feater in his hat. Feathertop’s pipe important because smoking gives him life.
    and he was too good to be a man .

  48. Halima Mahdi Says:

    The Feathertop
    1\ B
    2\ A
    3\ A
    4\ B
    5\ D
    6\ D
    7\ C
    8\ A
    9\ B
    10\C

  49. taqwa sahl Says:

    meaning word

    fake smile الابتسامة المذيفة
    teeth الاسنان
    jaws الفكاك
    incisors القواطع
    canines الانياب
    molars الاضراس
    crown التاج
    root canal treatment معالجة قناة الجذر
    filling الحشو
    alveolus الحويصلة
    gum اللثة
    dental hygienist مساعد طبيب الاسنان
    Dental Surgeon جراح الاسنان
    Denture طقم الاسنان
    misalignmentl دم انتظام الاسنان
    Bridge سن مذيفة
    Cap سن تعويضية
    Dental extraction انتزاع الاسنان
    dentist طبيب الاسنان
    bleaching التقصير
    discolored teeth اسنان ملونة
    dentistry طب الاسنان
    gum fibers اللياف اللثة
    veneers الاغشية
    defective teeth الاسنان المعيبة

  50. taqwa sahl Says:

    (the effect of smiles in developing our relation ships )
    smiles facial expressions can develope are social .
    communication, it gives the individuals of are social by the famliar sensory thus makes the exchange of ideas more easy and useful.
    also smiles reflect your charachtar, and maje you more attractive to your social , and give you cofidence.
    finally please smile even if you sad to mske any thing around you beautiful.

  51. taqwa sahl Says:

    1. 1. Summary
    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases that produce inflammation of connective tissue. Treatment includes heat, exercises and drugs that reduce pain. Besides osteoarthritis many noninfectious disease can limit activities of the elderly.
    2. True or false
    1\ F
    2\T
    3\T
    4\F
    5\T
    Complete the following sentences by choosing the most correct answer
    1\C
    2\b
    3\b
    4\c
    1. summarizing for (feather top)
    This story started with spring season, Feather top gets his name from the feather in his hat. Finally Feather top realize that a little boy says his face is a pumpkin.

    The Feather top
    1\b
    2\b
    3\a
    4\d
    5\d
    6\a
    7\c
    8\a
    9\d
    10\c

  52. wesal babiker osman ali omer Says:

    The summary of Arthritis and rheumatism

    Arthritis and rheumatism are diseases.that produce inflammation of connective tissue.

    Osteoporosis leads to fractures (hipbone). some elderly infected with deteriorate of lens, senses of taste and smell and hearing loss .

  53. wesal babiker osman ali omer Says:

    Answer True or False to the following statements:=

    1- (False).
    2- (False).
    3- (True).
    4- (True).
    5- (True).

    Complete the following sentences :=

    1- (c).
    2- (b).
    3- (b).
    4- (a).

  54. wesal babiker osman ali omer Says:

    Summary of the Feathertop

    Warm days of spring started to come after I went cold nights where green corn plants began to show. the big black birds were hungry and when they saw the little green plants the flew down to eat them.

    The mother rigby was charming me angry black bird and had planned to stop by to eat corn and started work at the hands of Mcnsthe She looked like a man and wanted to look good in the form of Fsaatha where his suit decorated with purple and white silk socks and covered in hair and put his hat and labeled in bird feathers, and then took pipe tobacco and placed it in his mouth and told him not to lose it all. Then walked on a quiet street and saw a beautiful girl and boy next to her and then went so, then the little boy pointed his finger at featertop[ and said no way. He then turned the man and went and saw the mother emotional vibrations and said to her: I am not a man, but I’m just a puff of smoke. With all his strength and broke the pipe and then became a bundle of sticks, and mother said: It is very good and to be a scarecrow and that it would make him happy so I’m a scarecrow again.

    The Feathertop:=

    1- (b).
    2- (b).
    3- (d).
    4- (b).
    5- (d).
    6- (d).
    7- (c).
    8- (a).
    9- (d).
    10-(c).

  55. Amr Mohammad Ali Says:

    Reading Comprehension questionsb
    1-____B
    2-____B
    3-____D
    4-____B
    5-____A
    6-____A
    7-____A
    8-____A
    9-____B
    10-___D
    11-___C
    12-___A

    Traning on fast reading
    HIV
    1-___C
    2-___A
    3-___B
    4-___C
    5-___B

    WHO
    1-__C
    2-___B
    3-___A
    4-___A
    5-___B

  56. mahassin ahmed Says:

    The witch Mother Rigby builds a scarecrow to protect her daughter of Judge Gook in, toward whom Mother Rigby bears an unspecified grudge. Judge Gook in meets the Scarecrow, whom Mother Rigby has named Feathertop. it is introduced to Polly, But when Polly and Feathertop gaze into a bewitched mirror, they see Feathertop reflected as a scarecrow, not as a man. Polly faints.

    1/ b.
    2/ b.
    3/ d.
    4/ b.
    5/ d.
    6/ d.
    7/ c.
    8/ a.
    9/ d.
    10/ a.

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