Pre-sessional Assignments

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122 Responses to “Pre-sessional Assignments”

  1. nilecollege Says:

    You can eiher write your assignments here or paste it from your documents

  2. malaz abd al karem Says:

    Trees are factors thet can change the microclimate and provide decomposition of organisms. but now fuels from wood is possible and rates are comparable to that of gasoline rates in US and european countries. further corporate faming have increased the growth of trees trees when grown as energy crops and economic crops it is more valuable. we know that trees involve in all cycles of ecosystem and provide fodder and shelter for many species.
    trees provide good sorce of oxygen in environment and prevents soil erosion. Trees are also aesthetic in apperance and some trees bloom giving fragrance. trees grown in large amount can contribute to forestry and provide shelter for forest animals. it conserves nature. trees can be made as money at any stage. They only form our petroleum and diamond source. trees are really green gold. roofs can be made by trees in mordern technologies. its also newly developing area.

  3. hosam mohammed ahmmed Says:

    Trees are important, valuable and necessary to our very existence. It’s not too hard to believe that, without trees we humans would not exist on this beautiful planet. In fact, some claim can be made that our mother’s and father’s ancestors climbed trees .

    Still, trees are essential to life as we know it and are the ground troops on an environmental frontline. Our existing forest and the trees we plant work in tandem to make a bett

    5/8/09

    Let’s face it, we could not exist as we do if there were no trees. A mature leafy tree produces as much oxygen in a season as 10 people inhale in a year. What many people don’t realize is the forest also acts as a giant filter that cleans the air we breather world.
    The term phytoremediation is a fancy word for the absorption of dangerous chemicals and other pollutants that have entered the soil. Trees can either store harmful pollutants or actually change the pollutant into less harmful forms. Trees filter sewage and farm chemicals, reduce the effects of animal wastes, clean roadside spills and clean water runoff into strTrees muffle urban noise almost as effectively as stone walls. Trees, planted at strategic points in a neighborhood or around your house, can abate major noises from freeways and airportseams.

    Flash flooding can be dramatically reduced by a forest or by planting trees. One Colorado blue spruce, either planted or growing wild, can intercept more than 1000 gallons of water annually when fully grown. Underground water-holding aquifers are recharged with this slowing down of water runoff

  4. hosam mohammed ahmmed Says:

    Trees are important, valuable and necessary to our very existence. It’s not too hard to believe that, without trees we humans would not exist on this beautiful planet. In fact, some claim can be made that our mother’s and father’s ancestors climbed trees .

    Still, trees are essential to life as we know it and are the ground troops on an environmental frontline. Our existing forest and the trees we plant work in tandem to make

    Let’s face it, we could not exist as we do if there were no trees. A mature leafy tree produces as much oxygen in a season as 10 people inhale in a year. What many people don’t realize is the forest also acts as a giant filter that cleans the air we breather world.
    The term phytoremediation is a fancy word for the absorption of dangerous chemicals and other pollutants that have entered the soil. Trees can either store harmful pollutants or actually change the pollutant into less harmful forms. Trees filter sewage and farm chemicals, reduce the effects of animal wastes, clean roadside spills and clean water runoff into strTrees muffle urban noise almost as effectively as stone walls. Trees, planted at strategic points in a neighborhood or around your house, can abate major noises from freeways and airportseams.

    Flash flooding can be dramatically reduced by a forest or by planting trees. One Colorado blue spruce, either planted or growing wild, can intercept more than 1000 gallons of water annually when fully grown. Underground water-holding aquifers are recharged with this slowing down of water runoff

  5. kawser elamien Says:

    trees gold green
    trees are factors that change the micrclimate.
    trees provide good sorce of oxygen in envionment and prevents soil erosion.
    it also aesthetic in apperance and some trees bloom ginving fragrance.
    trees grown in large amount can contribute to forestry and provide shelter for forest animals.
    it also provide the food to eat and the paper to write. we need them in summer as they shady and cool. therefor, it is really green gold.
    roofs can be made by trees in morden technologies.

  6. Abu bakr Badi Says:

    The trees are ery usefull to all kinds of life. They provide many advances for the diffrent kinds creatures.
    The trees conisder a sources of natural richs in earth plant , so that it will be very important to keep them standig and take care of .
    The most advantages of the trees today they hlep to containe the desertification break out around the world. In logic way the forests help to absorb the co2.
    I think we can control in the plant digre by growing trees and young planet to help humanty to survife

  7. Abu bakr Badi Says:

    The information technilgy is a lage since system in fact . Info-tech becomes commonplace.
    Telephone ( Dial.up ) modren : Low speed but inexpensive and widly Avilable. High speed phone lines : More expesive but but availble in cities.
    Problem for telephone [ Internet connections ] :
    Cable Modren : close cometitor to DSL writeless systems satellite and other through- the air connections.

  8. suaad mamoun.n Says:

    trees are green gold
    in actual sense trees are very esseutal in our life becuuuse hie benetit aalot from trees. they porovde us witt firewoods and fruit which help our bodiies as people.trees also buutify our hation especiully hihen qrowh at the road side.sugrowiny of trees in the nulton is very importaut they alsu protect us from the burhiny suu.and help our auimals to stay purposely for toarist movement…

  9. Fatima Hayder .M Says:

    trees are green gold

    Trees have a great influence on the shaping of the ecology of our planet and in determining the present arrangements of life on earth.
    Trees have furnished us with two of life’s essentials, food and oxygen, During the process of photosynthesis, trees take in carbon dioxide and produce the oxygen. As we evolved, they provided additional necessities such as shelter, medicine, and tools. Today, their value continues, to increase and more benefits of trees are being discovered as their role expands to satisfy the needs created by our modern lifestyles.
    Trees control climate by moderating the effects of the sun, rain and wind. Leaves absorb and filter the sun’s radiant energy, keeping things cool in summer.
    Trees are an important part of every community. Our streets, parks, playgrounds and backyards……etc. so they are called green gold because They are very valuable and they are green in colour.

  10. hanaa -n Says:

    today great efforts are being made to raise peoples awareness of the importance of trees. all over the world millions of trees are being planted. in the sudan also we need to make an effort to save trees and also make maximum use of them. the world population is now about 5,000 million. it is expected to rise to 8,500 million by the year 2025.trees are asource of fodder for cattle and asource of certain substances for medicine. trees can protect the enviroment by reducing erosion and making the soil rich. the strong roots of the soil from being blown away by the wind.

  11. wagida altayeb n Says:

    the trees gev all people and anemals good life pecous gev peutyfool home and gardens. ifused properly .forest resources can to the development of the land and improvementes in living standards for the people. forests supply us with timber for building. fire wood, fruit , nuts and gam arabic trees are source of fodder for cattle and certain substances for medicine the harvesting and processing of forest products creates employment ,bwings income and hard currency this maney can be spent to buy more and better food trees con protect making the soil rich the strong roots of the trees and the shelter of the leaves stop the soil from being blown by the wind shor paseple say trees are green gold.

  12. mariam mekki tomat krboos Says:

    The trees is very essential to the maintenance a good environment , how to meet the needs of an increasing population and how to improve the environment Without a healthy, productive environment ,we will be able to feed the people of the world Trees help us to solve the problem.

    forests supply us with timber for building ,firewood,fruit and gum Arabic.bring income and hard currency.
    Today great efforts are bing to rais peoples a wareness of the importance of trees and forests. finlly the trees are green gold because the trees for life.

  13. Douha - M Says:

    Iformation Technology is no less than the Eighth Wonder.
    We are in the 21st century and everything around us is becoming computerised. Information Technology is becoming a part of every person’s life. Weather it’s a child at school or an employer at work. Even parents use IT at home.
    Information Technology is used in companies who help clients innovate thier vissions in a wide range. It is also importantly used in education. Whilst there are far too many wonderful jobs in the world to pay the bills, many companies are looking for IT graduates to occupie different jobs. unapologetic money-spinners and so, would now rather spend their money in buying new technology in every way that satisfies their hunger. And there will undoubtedly be thousdands of people out there eager to partake of the hype. My advice? Don’t be one of them.

  14. Ahmed Kamal (M) Says:

    The very first organisms to all foodchains or foodwebs are plants which can be regarded as greens. The only food synthesizers amongst all organisms and that is done by a process called photosynthesis. Trees naturally act as a filter, taking in carbondioxide which is harmful to the environment and uses it to produce glucose and release oxygen.
    Extracts from greens have been used as means to prepare medicine against various diseases or wounds since very ancient times. Studies and researches prove that such herbal medicine (traditional medicine or alternative medicine) have lesser side effects on the human body than man-made medicines.
    Greens also play a major role in decomposing dead materials and the recycling of gases in the environment. Moreover, greens are the healthier way of nutrition, more ballanced and also they’ve more energy contend than in other organisms.
    Unfortunately, humans lately have been destroying it by different ways like cutting down trees (deforestation) to make an industerial use of it or the spaces they occupy, while humans dramatically emitting large amounts of pollutants mudering it yet suffering of environmental rampages such as whirlwinds, earth-quicks, global-warming, etc.. I think greens should be preserved sincerely and seriously as I do think it is more precious than gold.

  15. hosam mohammed _N Says:

    History of medicine in Sudan is not much different from the history of world medicine, people Itajawn herbal foot
    Ancient medicine differs from modern medicine as follows:
    There is no equipment Mmt_khassp There is also far there has been herbs and medicines related to nature in addition to the Koran and treatment until now.
    The people in the foot far away from modern medicine due to the non appearance of education or were clueless.
    And until now some medicines derived from herbs and Bni so that the ancient and modern medicine, each linked to one another.

  16. azza mamoun_N Says:

    He knew the Sudanese people and the old medicine people I Itajawn herbal substances and preparations and some simple chemical Ermsthoudrat. Ashab continued shaking, but the English to enter Sudan and technically sound in Zlk time Sennari Abdullah and Sheikh Dr. Farah Zein Tctouk Kano herbal medicine and treating the Koran. But in our time shook Antcherh disease, which helped the development of medicine in the Sudan and the world and the entry of modern equipment and drug discovery. And with us Alamschwiat in Sudan

  17. umniah al-amin Says:

    Occupy the tree since time immemorial a great place in the hearts of human beings, and Islam has urged us to take care of the tree and planted .
    The tree is an old friend to man, and a vital element of the influential elements of the universe so it has many benefits such as;

    utilized in the extraction of some types of medicines, as well as wood for construction and fuel,learning from the tree in the securities industry, provide adequate shade and influence on climate and the tempering temperature in the city and village,Reducing the dust in the towns and villages and clearing the air of carbon dioxide and increase oxygen,Therefore, it is called green gold.

  18. umniah al-amin Says:

    Valuable medicine started in Sudan through
    Founded Research Institute of Traditional Medicine in 1983 to be responsible for the research of traditional medicine in the Sudan.
    Sudan is considered one of the most wealthy country in the world in terms of cultural and linguistic diversity. This site make the Sudanese people with considerable experience in herbal medicine, minerals and extracts of animal. As practiced cupping and treated fractures and bruises.
    The evolution of medicine with the progress of time, but it became clear that development in the nineties and the beginning of the millennium, where used equipment and tools imported from European countries and opened the hospital and opened a large number of specialized universities to study medicine.

  19. kawther alamen Says:

    Faculty of Medicine or School of Medicine is the academic staff are taught medicine in it. Tasesp College of Medicine or School of Medicine at the University of Khartoum is the former Gordon College in 1924 AD in memory of Lord Kitchener Pasha is the first faculty of medicine in the Middle East, a coherent and integrated approach has not complied with faculties of medicine English

  20. hosam mohammed ahmed_N Says:

    asthma

    Asthma symptoms:

    Symptoms vary from person to person, ranging from mild to severe, and occur in both asthma caused by allergies and those that occur from reasons that are not sensitive and could include:
    • cough
    • wheezing wheezing (audio reset during exhalation)
    • difficulty in breathing
    • constriction in the chest;
    • Increased mucus secretion
    • Two expansion in the nose

    What are the first signs warning of a crisis of asthma:

    First signs are changes that occur with the onset of asthma.

    Under normal circumstances, these symptoms are not serious enough to make the patient depends on the activity he is doing.
    If a patient’s initial warning signs of a crisis may help prevent the onset of the crisis or prevent them seriously.
    – These signs include:

    – Does not stop a persistent cough, especially during the night.
    – A very narrow or simple breathing.
    – Feeling very tired while doing sports, in addition to the presence of wheezing in breathing, cough and shortness of breath.
    – Lack of or change in the ease of the process of exhaling.
    – A sense of common cold symptoms – inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, allergies (sneezing, runny nose, cough, congestion, swelling of the throat and headache).
    – Thinner.

    What is an asthma attack?

    Someone who finds a heart asthma, difficulty breathing, as to contract the muscles that surround the trachea tubes and lead to a narrow duct. This tension and impede the natural flow of the popular air, as the increase in mucous secretion to the formation of mucous plugs. As well as swelling occurs in tracheotomy tubes, thus further impeding the flow of air. If the Nuba, the exacerbation of tension popular and mucus confined air in air bags, which hampers the exchange of air. And uses the person who gets heart chest muscles more in order to assist him in breathing.

    What are the stages of an asthma attack?
    What is Pinging and how it happens?
    Pinging sound occurs when air passes in the airways narrow due to swelling and mucus and cramping popular. It can occur suddenly and sizzling be a sign of the difficulty in breathing. If the unit has developed Nuba may disappear Burr. The absence of pinging is an indication that the air does not move within or outside the lungs, a situation is very serious. Burr will return with the improvement of Nubia, and eventually disappear completely.

    Who gets asthma?

    Anyone can be infected with asthma. It is not contagious disease affecting millions of people all over the globe regardless of race, culture or age or sex. And increases the risk of asthma and a family history of it. People who suffer from allergies more vulnerable to asthma. In fact, it is estimated that 80% of children and 50% of adults with asthma are allergic to as well. Asthma usually occurs in children in the age of five, and adults in the third decade, and can also be caused to the elderly, about 10% of asthma cases that are diagnosed after the age of 65.

    * The causes of asthma:

    Associated with asthma of a problem in the airways, but the main reason for this problem is unknown.

    Airways of asthma patients are extremely sensitive to any external awareness of this arousal cause a crisis.

    .

    One of the most fundamental factors for the control of asthma is to know the causes of the crisis and try to avoid them.

    Common triggers of asthma Triggers

    Asthma irritants are those factors that bring about symptoms of asthma, this triggers vary between people with asthma, so it is necessary to know the factors that occur Nubia:

    Factors allergens: feather or animal hair, dust mites (there is also in the carpet and conditioners windows that are not cleaned regularly), pollen,.

    Stimuli in the air: tobacco smoke from cigarettes or cigars or (shisha), charcoal grill smoke, the smell of paint and fuel, pollutants such as vehicle exhausts and smokestacks.

    Weather: cold, dry air and high humidity or sudden changes of weather can cause asthma symptoms. Wind movement material irritating allergens, and rain facilitates the growth of mushrooms, and the launch of the vaccine.
    .

    Exercise: Aerobics are common irritants for asthma. And can occur in all after the performance of persons with severe exercises for 5 minutes at least. As for sports such as swimming, are less irritants of asthma, while long-distance running and football usually lead to an asthma attack when exposed to infection.

    .

  21. Rouya Mohammed (M) Says:

    Asthma
    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory lung disease involving recurred breathing problem.
    Asthma has symptom differently like chronic cough especially at night, coughing, wheezing.
    Asthma causes:
    *contraction of air way muscles.
    *mucus production.
    *swelling in the air way.
    How is an asthma diagnosis?
    *medical history.
    *physical examination.
    *laboratory test.
    Treatment of asthma:
    Specific treatment for asthma will be determined by your physician based on:
    *your age, overall health and medical history.
    *extant of the disease.
    *your tolerance for specific medication, procedures, or therapies.
    *expectations for the course.
    *your opinion or preference.

  22. samah sameer mis Says:

    Asthma is a chronic lung disease that inflames and narrows the airways. Asthma causes recurring periods of wheezing (a whistling sound when you breathe), chest tightness, shortness of breath, and coughing. The coughing often occurs at night or early in the morning.
    When the airways react, the muscles around them tighten. This causes the airways to narrow, and less air flows to your lungs. The swelling also can worsen, making the airways even narrower. Cells in the airways may make more mucus than normal. Mucus is a sticky, thick liquid that can further narrow your airways. It is important to know that asthma is not caused by emotional factors-as commonly believed years ago. When the airways react, the muscles around them tighten. This causes the airways to narrow, and less air flows to your lungs. The swelling also can worsen, making the airways even narrower. Cells in the airways may make more mucus than normal. Mucus is a sticky, thick liquid that can further narrow your airways.
    This chain reaction can result in asthma symptoms. Symptoms can happen each time the airways are irritated.
    Asthma affects people of all ages, but it most often starts in childhood. In the United States, more than 22 million people are known to have asthma. Nearly 6 million of these people are children. diagnosed by Your primary care doctor will diagnose asthma based on your medical history, a physical exam, and results from tests and may be necessary for any\all of the following reasons; peak flow monitoring (pfm),chest x-rays, blood tests, allergy tests. treatment for asthma extent of the disease, your opinion or preference, etc. to treat asthma use suitable investigation, treatment of cause asthma prorated good education of cases of asthma to the potent and compliant

  23. AMAr mis Says:

    ASThme isachronic in flamm atory lung disease thesymptom isachronis coilgh or coughing or wheezingthet occurrsonly theyhev recurrent
    bronchitis sincerespirtoty asthe many resemble

  24. Taha Mohamed -M Says:

    In this modern world people have many advantages in fighting the plague if it came.Nowdays scientists now the cause of the disease and therefore they can know the cure for the disease.But in the 14th century the doctors didn’t know about the diseases’ so they couldn’t cure the deisease.In this modern world,when a case of the plague happens (normally of the Bubonic type) the health officals will isolate the patient.This is known as quartinizing the victim.They will record their movements.The officals will destroy the rodent population responsible for the outbreak. This is easily done today but was virtually impossible in the 14th Century. In 1932, with sulphonamide drugs, there was finally an effective treatment for the plague. There is a vaccine, but because it takes several weeks to become effective, it would be of little use during an epidemic. In the modern world people have good drainage and sanitation systems.But in the 14th century there was no proper sanitation and drainge system.

  25. Taha Mohamed -M Says:

    The plague is spread in a double bacillus play from rats to fleas to human. Humans don’t usually catch it not from flea bites, but from rubbing flea vomit or feces into the skin.In this modern world people have many advantages in fighting the plague if it came.Nowdays scientists now the cause of the disease and therefore they can know the cure for the disease.But in the 14th century the doctors didn’t know about the diseases’ so they couldn’t cure the deisease.In this modern world,when a case of the plague happens (normally of the Bubonic type) the health officals will isolate the patient.This is known as quartinizing the victim.They will record their movements.The officals will destroy the rodent population responsible for the outbreak. This is easily done today but was virtually impossible in the 14th Century. In 1932, with sulphonamide drugs, there was finally an effective treatment for the plague. There is a vaccine, but because it takes several weeks to become effective, it would be of little use during an epidemic. In the modern world people have good drainage and sanitation systems.But in the 14th century there was no proper sanitation and drainge system.The cities were dirty.Dr. Pollitzer, who works for U.N.’s World Health Organization, last week started working in the University of California’s George Williams Hooper Foundation in San Francisco. The foundation developed many of the modern techniques used against the plague and the foundation is trying to find still better methods. Scientsts are trying to kill the rats by new, powerful poisons like DDT. They are trying to attack the disease itself with modern medicines and vaccines.
    Sulfa drugs, used with streptomycin, a combination discovered within the past few years, can protect against the two most common forms of the plague: bubonic{i.e.which attacks the lymph glands} and pneumonic which attacks the lungs. Sulfa drugs alone work too, in most cases after bubonic plague has struck. In one district in rural China, said Dr. Pollitzer, his WHO teams found 44 cases.Of those 44 people,41 people were saved . For the pneumonic form, there is rabbit serum, developed two years ago at the Hooper Foundation’s animal building, known to laboratory workers and San Francisco newspapers as “Mousetown”; rabbits,There are also new vaccines that can be given to ward off attacks. “They are made from live bacilli that have become “friendly,” lost their ability to cause the disease”says Pollitzer.
    This new combination of tools old & new has not yet been completely tried out in the field against epidemic plague. “There was little plague in China last year”says Dr. Pollitzer. In general people now advantages that people did’t have in the 14th century.

  26. hosam mohammed_n Says:

    The blackdares of very serious diseases such as like the blackdares these days does not represent Hadz together a modern appliances, quarantine and medicines are available and the most important thing advances in modern medicine. Offset by quarantine doctors, medicine and protect the people from disease transmission in Maamadi did not have good care, as happened in China in 1330

  27. Taha Mohamed -M Says:

    What do we know about about AIDS? What is AIDS and what does AIDS stand for? AIDS is the abbreviation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is a medical condition caused by a virus. A person is diagnosed with AIDS when their immune system is too weak to fight off infections. AIDS was first identified in the early 1980s. Today, there are an estimated 33 million people living with HIV/AIDS.There are many different theories for the origin of AIDS. They are:
    • Some people say that the HIV virus that causes AIDS is similar to the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV).
    • Some say that it was originated in Africa.
    • Some conspiracy theories allege that HIV was created in a bioweapons laboratory.
    • Another theory is that humans were first infected through direct contact with HIV-infected monkeys.
    • Another conspiracy theory was to use AIDS as part of a plot to kill black people.
    • A myth was started that the United States government created HIV in order to destroy the population of Central Africa.
    What causes AIDS? As we said at introduction paragraph AIDS, is caused by a virus. This virus is known as HIV.HIV is the abbreviation for Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV can be of two types:
    • HIV -1
    • HIV -2
    HIV causes AIDS by slowly damaging the immune system. As the HIV continues to damage the immune system, the immune system of the affected person gets weak. The affected person is then vulnerable to infections and diseases.
    AIDS like any other diseases also has symptoms. The symptoms of AIDS are:
    • Fever
    • Weight Loss
    • Fatigue
    • Diarrhea
    • Swollen lymph nodes
    • Shortness of breath
    The incubation period for AIDS varies from person to person. But the incubation period for AIDS usually is about several years.
    Like all viruses, HIV infects the cells of a living organism in order to make new copies of it. HIV can only be transmitted in certain ways and the purpose of this page is to explain how you can and can’t become infected.
    HIV is found in blood and other body fluids such as semen and vaginal fluids. It cannot live for long outside the body, so to be infected with HIV you need to allow some body fluid from an infected person to get inside your body. The virus can enter the body via contact with the bloodstream or by passing through delicate mucous membranes, such as inside the vagina, rectum or urethra. They are as follows:
    • Having sexual intercourse with an infected partner.
    • Injecting drugs using a needle or syringe that has been used by someone who is infected.
    • As a baby of an infected mother, during pregnancy, labour or delivery, or through breastfeeding.
    • Blood transfusions of an infected person and infected blood products
    • Tattoos / piercing
    AIDS can be treated. Antiretroviral treatment can prolong the time between HIV infection and the onset of AIDS. Modern combination therapy is highly effective and someone with HIV who is taking treatment could live for the rest of their life without developing AIDS. There is treatment for AIDS, but no cure. But there are tests to see if the person has AIDS or not.
    AIDS can be prevented in many ways. They are:
    • Abstain from sex or delay first sex
    • Have fewer partners
    • Condomise{i.e. using male or female condoms consistently and correctly}
    • Sex education for young people users.
    • Use sterile needles
    • Doctors and people who work with infected blood should protective barriers and wash their hands
    • A course of antiretroviral drugs given to a woman during pregnancy and labour as well as to her newborn baby can greatly reduce the chances of the child becoming infected. Although the most effective treatment involves a combination of drugs taken over a long period, even a single dose of treatment can cut the transmission rate by half.
    • Scan the blood for AIDS and other diseases of the blood before transfusion.
    • Use sterile needles for piercing and tattooing

    There was a global AIDS epidemic in 2007. Around 2.7 million people became infected with HIV in 2007 and in the same year 2 million people died from AIDS. Sub-Saharan Africa has been hardest hit by the epidemic; in 2007 around three quarters of AIDS deaths were in this region.

    Estimate Range
    People living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 33.0 million 30.3-36.1 million
    Adults living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 30.8 million 28.2-34.0 million
    Women living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 15.5 million 14.2-16.9 million
    Children living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 2.0 million 1.9-2.3 million
    People newly infected with HIV in 2007 2.7 million 2.2-3.2 million
    Children newly infected with HIV in 2007 0.37 million 0.33-0.41 million
    AIDS deaths in 2007 2.0 million 1.8-2.3 million
    Child AIDS deaths in 2007 0.27 million 0.25-0.29 million
    More than 25 million people have died of AIDS since 1981.
    Africa has 11.6 million AIDS orphans.
    At the end of 2007, women accounted for 50% of all adults living with HIV worldwide, and for 59% in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Young people (under 25 years old) account for half of all new HIV infections worldwide.
    Global HIV/AIDS estimates, end of 2007
    Estimate Range
    People living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 33.0 million 30.3-36.1 million
    Adults living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 30.8 million 28.2-34.0 million
    Women living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 15.5 million 14.2-16.9 million
    Children living with HIV/AIDS in 2007 2.0 million 1.9-2.3 million
    People newly infected with HIV in 2007 2.7 million 2.2-3.2 million
    Children newly infected with HIV in 2007 0.37 million 0.33-0.41 million
    AIDS deaths in 2007 2.0 million 1.8-2.3 million
    Child AIDS deaths in 2007 0.27 million 0.25-0.29 million
    More than 25 million people have died of AIDS since 1981.
    Africa has 11.6 million AIDS orphans.
    At the end of 2007, women accounted for 50% of all adults living with HIV worldwide, and for 59% in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Young people (under 25 years old) account for half of all new HIV infections worldwide.
    In developing and transitional countries, 9.7 million people are in immediate need of life-saving AIDS drugs; of these, only 2.99 million (31%) are receiving the drugs.
    The number of people living with HIV has risen from around 8 million in 1990 to 33 million today, and is still growing. Around 67% of people living with HIV are in sub-Saharan Africa.
    Regional statistics for HIV & AIDS, end of 2007
    Region Adults & children
    living with HIV/AIDS Adults & children
    newly infected Adult prevalence* Deaths of
    adults & children
    Sub-Saharan Africa 22.0 million 1.9 million 5.0% 1.5 million
    North Africa & Middle East 380,000 40,000 0.3% 27,000
    Asia 5 million 380,000 0.3% 380,000
    Oceania 74,000 13,000 0.4% 1,000
    Latin America 1.7 million 140,000 0.5% 63,000
    Caribbean 230,000 20,000 1.1% 14,000
    Eastern Europe & Central Asia 1.5 million 110,000 0.8% 58,000
    North America, Western & Central Europe 2.0 million 81,000 0.4% 31,000
    Global Total 33.0 million 2.7 million 0.8% 2.0 million
    * Proportion of adults aged 15-49 who were living with HIV/AIDS
    During 2007 more than two and a half million adults and children became infected with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), the virus that causes AIDS. By the end of the year, an estimated 33 million people worldwide were living with HIV/AIDS. The year also saw two million deaths from AIDS, despite recent improvements in access to antiretroviral treatment.
    In short AIDS is a killer disease. It kills many people yearly.

  28. hanaa khatim-n Says:

    Aids is a medical condition. a person is diagnosed with aids when their immune system is too weak to fight off nfections. *the causes of aids:
    aids is caused by HIV.
    HIVis a virus that gradually attaks immune system cells.
    *transmission of aids:
    -sexual contact
    -sharing hypodermic needles
    -mother to child
    -infusion of infected blood products
    *incubation period:
    variable, usually several years.
    *symptoms:
    -fever
    -weight loss
    -fatigue
    -diarrhcea
    -swollen lymph
    -nodes
    -shortness of breath
    *is there a cure for AIDS:
    there is no cure for aids. there are drugs that can slow down the HIV virus, and slow down the damage to your immune system. there is no way to ”clear” the HIV out of your body.
    *most peoble get the HIVvirus by:
    -having sex with an infected person .
    -sharing a needle(shooting drugs) with some one whos infected.
    how many peoble have died from AIDS:
    since the first cases of AIDS were identified in 1981, more than 25 million peoble have died from AIDS.

  29. sam Says:

    AIDS is the abbreviation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Some people have theories to as where the AIDS originated. They are:
    • Most people believe that the origin of HIV, the AIDS virus, derives from some natural evolutionary event.
    • Key among these HIV origin theories is the so called “cut hunter theory” in which a human, allegedly African native, received a bloody wound or infected splash while preparing a chimpanzee carrying a similar virus (i.e. SIV). Most recent research, along with the scientific consensus, holds that the origin of HIV and AIDS could never have happened this way.
    • The most highly respected scientists and academicians debated the possibility that HIV-1, the most widespread and deadly human AIDS virus, evolved from accidental vaccine contaminations and subsequent transmissions to mostly African villagers.
    AIDS is a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The condition gradually destroys the immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections.
    AIDS like any other disease has symptoms. The symptoms are as follows:
    • Diarrhea
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Frequent vaginal yeast infections
    • Headache
    • Mouth sores, including fungal (candida) infection
    • Muscular stiffness or aching
    • Rash of various types, including seborrheic dermatitis
    • Sore throat
    • Swollen lymph glands
    AIDS can spread from one person to another by these ways:
    • Contaminated blood transfusions and blood products
    • Intimate sexual contact
    • The use of contaminated needles and syringes
    The virus may also spread from a mother to her baby, either at birth or through breastfeeding
    People who become infected with HIV may have no symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass the infection to others. After being exposed to the virus, it usually takes about 3 months for the HIV ELISA blood test to change from HIV negative to HIV positive.
    There are tests to find out if a person has AIDS. The HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests detect antibodies to the HIV virus in the blood. Having these antibodies means you are infected with HIV.
    • If the test is negative (no antibodies found) and you have risk factors for HIV infection, you should be retested in 3 months.
    • If the HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests are positive, other blood tests can be done to determine how much HIV is in your bloodstream.
    White blood cell differential may also show abnormalities.
    A lower-than-normal CD4 cell count may be a sign that the virus is suppressing your immune system.
    AIDS has a treatment but no cure. Doctors often recommend drug therapy for patients who are committed to taking all their medications and have a CD4 count below 500 cells/mL (indicating their immune system is suppressed). Some people, including pregnant women and people with kidney or neurological problems related to HIV, may need treatment regardless of their CD4 count.
    It is extremely important for people with HIV to take all doses of their medications; otherwise the virus will quickly become resistant to the drugs. Therapy always involves a combination of antiviral drugs. Pregnant women with HIV infection are treated to reduce the chance of transmitting HIV to their babies.
    People with HIV infection need to become educated about the disease and treatment so that they can be active participants in making decisions with their health care provider.
    AIDS can be prevented. The prevention methods are:
    • Avoid injected (intravenous) drugs. If you use injected drugs, avoid sharing needles or syringes. Always use new needles. (Boiling or cleaning them with alcohol does not guarantee that they’re sterile and safe.)
    • Avoid oral, vaginal, or anal contact with semen from HIV-infected people.
    • Avoid unprotected anal intercourse, since it causes small tears in the rectal tissues, through which HIV in an infected partner’s semen may enter directly into the other partner’s blood.
    • If you have sex with people who use injected drugs, always use protection.
    • If you have sex with many people or with people who have multiple partners, always use protection.
    • People with AIDS or who have had positive HIV antibody tests can pass the disease on to others. They should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. They should not exchange genital fluids during sexual activity.
    • Safer sex behaviors may reduce the risk of getting the infection. There is still a slight risk of getting the infection even if you practice “safe sex” with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of the virus.
    • Use protection when having sexual contact with people you know or suspect of being infected with HIV. Even better, use protection for ALL sexual contact.

  30. Samah Mohamed-N Says:

    AIDS is the abbreviation for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Some people have theories to as where the AIDS originated. They are:
    • Most people believe that the origin of HIV, the AIDS virus, derives from some natural evolutionary event.
    • Key among these HIV origin theories is the so called “cut hunter theory” in which a human, allegedly African native, received a bloody wound or infected splash while preparing a chimpanzee carrying a similar virus (i.e. SIV). Most recent research, along with the scientific consensus, holds that the origin of HIV and AIDS could never have happened this way.
    • The most highly respected scientists and academicians debated the possibility that HIV-1, the most widespread and deadly human AIDS virus, evolved from accidental vaccine contaminations and subsequent transmissions to mostly African villagers.
    AIDS is a disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The condition gradually destroys the immune system, which makes it harder for the body to fight infections.
    AIDS like any other disease has symptoms. The symptoms are as follows:
    • Diarrhea
    • Fatigue
    • Fever
    • Frequent vaginal yeast infections
    • Headache
    • Mouth sores, including fungal (candida) infection
    • Muscular stiffness or aching
    • Rash of various types, including seborrheic dermatitis
    • Sore throat
    • Swollen lymph glands
    AIDS can spread from one person to another by these ways:
    • Contaminated blood transfusions and blood products
    • Intimate sexual contact
    • The use of contaminated needles and syringes
    The virus may also spread from a mother to her baby, either at birth or through breastfeeding
    People who become infected with HIV may have no symptoms for up to 10 years, but they can still pass the infection to others. After being exposed to the virus, it usually takes about 3 months for the HIV ELISA blood test to change from HIV negative to HIV positive.
    There are tests to find out if a person has AIDS. The HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests detect antibodies to the HIV virus in the blood. Having these antibodies means you are infected with HIV.
    • If the test is negative (no antibodies found) and you have risk factors for HIV infection, you should be retested in 3 months.
    • If the HIV ELISA and HIV Western blot tests are positive, other blood tests can be done to determine how much HIV is in your bloodstream.
    White blood cell differential may also show abnormalities.
    A lower-than-normal CD4 cell count may be a sign that the virus is suppressing your immune system.
    AIDS has a treatment but no cure. Doctors often recommend drug therapy for patients who are committed to taking all their medications and have a CD4 count below 500 cells/mL (indicating their immune system is suppressed). Some people, including pregnant women and people with kidney or neurological problems related to HIV, may need treatment regardless of their CD4 count.
    It is extremely important for people with HIV to take all doses of their medications; otherwise the virus will quickly become resistant to the drugs. Therapy always involves a combination of antiviral drugs. Pregnant women with HIV infection are treated to reduce the chance of transmitting HIV to their babies.
    People with HIV infection need to become educated about the disease and treatment so that they can be active participants in making decisions with their health care provider.
    AIDS can be prevented. The prevention methods are:
    • Avoid injected (intravenous) drugs. If you use injected drugs, avoid sharing needles or syringes. Always use new needles. (Boiling or cleaning them with alcohol does not guarantee that they’re sterile and safe.)
    • Avoid oral, vaginal, or anal contact with semen from HIV-infected people.
    • Avoid unprotected anal intercourse, since it causes small tears in the rectal tissues, through which HIV in an infected partner’s semen may enter directly into the other partner’s blood.
    • If you have sex with people who use injected drugs, always use protection.
    • If you have sex with many people or with people who have multiple partners, always use protection.
    • People with AIDS or who have had positive HIV antibody tests can pass the disease on to others. They should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. They should not exchange genital fluids during sexual activity.
    • Safer sex behaviors may reduce the risk of getting the infection. There is still a slight risk of getting the infection even if you practice “safe sex” with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of the virus.
    • Use protection when having sexual contact with people you know or suspect of being infected with HIV. Even better, use protection for ALL sexual contact.

  31. Ghada Yahia -M Says:

    AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.AIDS is a serious condition that weakens the body’s immune system, leaving it unable to fight off illness..HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, originated in non-human primates in sub-Saharan Africa and was transferred to humans during the late 19th or early 20th century. .There is many theories as to where AIDS originated. They are:
    • According to the ‘Hunter Theory’, the “simplest and most plausible explanation for the cross-species transmission”,[3] the virus was transmitted from a chimpanzee to a human when a bushmeat hunter was bitten or cut while hunting or butchering an animal. The resulting exposure of the hunter to blood or other bodily fluids of the chimpanzee could have resulted in infection.
    • Another theory of the origin of AIDS is that it developed from contaminated vaccines used in the world’s first mass immunisation for polio.
    • There are skeptics who maintain the belief that HIV is man-made, manufactured for biological warfare that was intended to wipe out the black and homosexual communities.
    AIDS is the last stage in a progression of diseases resulting from a viral infection known as the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV or AIDS virus). The diseases include a number of unusual and severe infections, cancers and debilitating illnesses, resulting in severe weight loss or wasting away, and diseases affecting the brain and central nervous system.
    Immediately following infection with HIV, most individuals develop a brief, nonspecific “viral illness” consisting of low grade fever, rash, muscle aches, headache and/or fatigue. Like any other viral illness, these symptoms resolve over a period of five to 10 days. Then for a period of several years (sometimes as long as several decades), people infected with HIV are asymptomatic (no symptoms). However, their immune system is gradually being destroyed by the virus. When this destruction has progressed to a critical point, symptoms of AIDS appear. These symptoms are as follows:
    • extreme fatigue
    • rapid weight loss from an unknown cause (more than 10 lbs. in two months for no reason)
    • appearance of swollen or tender glands in the neck, armpits or groin, for no apparent reason, lasting for more than four weeks
    • unexplained shortness of breath, frequently accompanied by a dry cough, not due to allergies or smoking
    • persistent diarrhea
    • intermittent high fever or soaking night sweats of unknown origin
    • a marked change in an illness pattern, either in frequency, severity, or length of sickness
    • appearance of one or more purple spots on the surface of the skin, inside the mouth, anus or nasal passages
    • whitish coating on the tongue, throat or vagina
    • forgetfulness, confusion and other signs of mental deterioration
    It can take as short as a year to as long as 10 to 15 years to go from being infected with HIV to “full-blown” AIDS.
    Screening for HIV infection is most commonly done by testing blood for HIV antibodies. A newer test, the Orasure test, involves collecting secretions between the cheek and gum and evaluating them for HIV antibodies. Orasure is essentially as accurate as a blood test, and, because it doesn’t involve a needle stick, it is favored by many individuals. Orasure is available through physicians’ offices and many public health clinics. Finally, a new urine test available for screening, although if the test is positive, blood tests need to be performed for confirmation of the presence of HIV.
    In 1996, a home HIV blood test (called Home Access) became available to the public. These home kits are available in pharmacies and by mail. The kit contains a few sharp tools called lancets, a piece of blotting paper marked with a unique identification number and a prepaid return envelope with a protective pouch. After pricking the finger with the lancet, a few drops of blood are blotted onto the paper, sealed into the envelope and sent to the address on the envelope. In about a week, the person calls a toll-free number to get the results of the test.
    Anti-HIV (also called antiretroviral) medications are used to control the reproduction of the virus and to slow or halt the progression of HIV-related disease. When used in combinations, these medications are termed Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). HAART combines three or more anti-HIV medications in a daily regimen, sometimes referred to as a “cocktail”. Anti-HIV medications do not cure HIV infection and individuals taking these medications can still transmit HIV to others. Anti-HIV medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fall into four classes:
    1. Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), such as nevirappine (Viramune) and efavirenz (Sustiva), bind to and block the action of reverse transcriptase, a protein that HIV needs to reproduce.
    2. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs), such as zidovudine (Retrovir), tenofovir DF (Viread), and stavudine (Zerit), are faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make more copies of itself. When HIV uses an NRTI instead of a normal building block, reproduction of the virus is stalled.
    3. Protease Inhibitors (PIs), such as lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), disable protease, a protein that HIV needs reproduce itself.
    4. Fusion Inhibitors, such as enfuvirtide (Fuzeon ), are newer treatments that work by blocking HIV entry into cells.
    AIDS is transmitted via three main routes:
    • The most common mode of transmission is the transfer of body secretions through sexual contact. This is accomplished through exposure of mucous membranes of the rectum, vagina or mouth to blood, semen or vaginal secretions containing the HIV virus.
    • Blood or blood products can transmit the virus, most often through the sharing of contaminated syringes and needles.
    • HIV can be spread during pregnancy from mother to fetus.

    The only way to protect from contracting AIDS sexually is to abstain from sex outside of a mutually faithful relationship with a partner whom the person knows is not infected with the AIDS virus. Otherwise, risks can be minimized if they:
    • Don’t have sexual contact with anyone who has symptoms of AIDS or who is a member of a high risk group for AIDS.
    • Avoid sexual contact with anyone who has had sex with people at risk of getting AIDS.
    • Don’t have sex with prostitutes.
    • Avoid having sex with anyone who has multiple and/or anonymous sexual partners.
    • Avoid oral, genital and anal contact with partner’s blood, semen, vaginal secretions, feces or urine. Unless they know with absolute certainty that their partner is not infected, a latex condom should be used during each sexual act, from start to finish. The use of a spermicidal agent may provide additional protection.
    • Avoid anal intercourse altogether.
    • Don’t share toothbrushes, razors or other implements that could become contaminated with the blood of anyone who is or might be infected with the AIDS virus.
    • Exercise caution regarding procedures, such as acupuncture, tattooing, and ear piercing, etc., in which needles or other nonsterile instruments may be used repeatedly to pierce the skin and/or mucous membranes.

  32. samah sameer_mis Says:

    AIDS is a chronic, life-threatening condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). By damaging your immune system, HIV interferes with your body’s ability to fight off viruses, bacteria and fungi that cause disease. HIV makes you more susceptible to certain types of cancers and to infections your body would normally resist, such as pneumonia and meningitis. The virus and the infection itself are known as HIV. “Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)” is the name given to the later stages of an HIV infection.
    An estimated 39.5 million people have HIV worldwide. And though the spread of the virus has slowed in some countries, it has escalated or remained unchanged in others. The best hope for stemming the spread of HIV lies in prevention, treatment and education.
    Symptoms

     Fever
     Headache
     Sore throat
     Swollen lymph glands
     Rash

    Later infection
    You may remain symptom-free for eight or nine years or more. But as the virus continues to multiply and destroy immune cells, you may develop mild infections or chronic symptoms such as:
     Swollen lymph nodes — often one of the first signs of HIV infection
     Diarrhea
     Weight loss
     Fever
     Cough and shortness of breath

    Tests and diagnosis
    HIV is diagnosed by testing your blood or oral mucus for the presence of antibodies to the virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) encourages voluntary HIV testing as a routine part of medical care for all adolescents and adults ages 13 to 64. Although the CDC says that everyone should be tested at least once, yearly testing is recommended only for people at high risk of infection.
    Unfortunately, HIV tests aren’t accurate immediately after infection because it takes time for you to develop these antibodies — usually about 12 weeks. In rare cases, it can take up to six months for an HIV test to become positive.
    Causes
    Normally, white blood cells and antibodies attack and destroy foreign organisms that enter your body. This response is coordinated by white blood cells known as CD4 lymphocytes. These lymphocytes are also the main targets of HIV, which attaches to the cells and then enters them. Once inside, the virus inserts its own genetic material into the lymphocytes and makes copies of itself.
    When the new copies of the virus break out of the host cells and enter the bloodstream, they search for other cells to attack. In the meantime, the old host cells and some uninfected CD4 cells die from the effects of the virus. The cycle repeats itself again and again. In the process, billions of new HIV particles are produced every day. Eventually, the number of CD4 cells in the body decreases, leading to severe immune deficiency, which means your body can no longer effectively fight off viruses and bacteria that cause disease.
    Treatments and drugs
    When HIV was first identified in the early 1980s, there were few drugs to treat the virus and the opportunistic infections associated with it. Since then, a number of medications have been developed to treat both HIV/AIDS and opportunistic infections. For many people, including children, these treatments have extended and improved their quality of life. Scientists at the National Institutes of Health estimate that since 1989, anti-retroviral medications have provided HIV-positive Americans with years of extended life. But none of these drugs can cure HIV/AIDS, many have side effects that can be severe, and most are expensive. What’s more, after 20 years on AIDS drugs, some people develop resistance to the drugs and no longer respond to treatment. Newer drugs are being researched and created to help this group of people.

  33. hanaa khatim-n Says:

    Asthma is achronic.
    *characteristics of asthma:
    1-inflammation 2-obstruction 3-hyper- responsiveness.
    *symptoms of asthma:
    1-chronic cough 2-coughing 3-wheezing 4-recurrent bronchitis.
    *causes of asthma:
    1-contraction of airway muscles 2-mucus production
    3-swelling in the airway 4-reactions are considered.
    *happen during in asthma attack:
    1-air passages in their lungs get narrower.
    2-breathing becoms more difficult.
    *asthma diagnosed:
    1-lung disorders 2-combination of medical history
    3-physical examination 4-laboratory tests.
    *treatment for asthma:
    specific treatment for asthma will be determined by your physician based on: 1-your age, overall health, and medical history.
    2-extent of the disease. 3-your opinion or preference. 4-expectations for thecourse of the disease.
    *managing asthma:
    1-identify and minimize contact with asthma triggers.
    2-understand and take medications as prescribed.
    3-monitor asthma.
    4-know what to do when asthma gets worse.
    *components of asthma treatment:
    1-the use of objective measures of lung function.
    2-the use of environmental control measures.
    3-the use of medication therapy designed.
    4-patient education that includes a partnership among the patient, family members, and the pyysician.

  34. umniah alamin (m) Says:

    AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. This is caused by the immune system being depleted of its cells by HIV. Once enough of these cells have been destroyed by HIV, the body is not capable of fighting off other bacteria and viruses as easily, particularly opportunistic infections. The word “Acquired” is included because you have to catch HIV, it doesn’t just spontaneously occur.
    do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages.
    Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS. HIV affects nearly every organ system.
    People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss. The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.

    *_Theories; 1_Viruses closely related to HIV are found in monkeys and other non-human primates in Africa, and many scientists believe that the first humans were infected through contact with monkeys in the middle years of the 20th century.. Sometimes monkeys are eaten as food, and it’s perhaps easier to imagine contact with infected blood through a knife cut during preparation. So this is one possible explanation for the origin of HIV/AIDS.

    2_More than 20 years after the AIDS epidemic arrived in the United States, a significant proportion of African Americans embrace the theory that government scientists created the disease to control or wipe out their communities, according to a study released today by Rand Corp. and Oregon State University.

    *_Causes ; AIDS is the most severe acceleration of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells
    Once HIV has killed so many CD4+ T cells that there are fewer than 200 of these cells per microliter (µL) of blood, cellular immunity is lost. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is identified either on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells remaining in the blood, and/or the presence of certain infections, as noted above.
    In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months. However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years.
    Many factors affect the rate of progression. These include factors that influence the body’s ability to defend against HIV such as the infected person’s general immune function. Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people.
    Poor access to health care and the existence of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis also may predispose people to faster disease progression. The infected person’s genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. An example of this is people with the homozygous CCR5-Δ32 variation are resistant to infection with certain strains of HIV. HIV is genetically variable and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.

    *_The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus or child during perinatal period. It is possible to find HIV in the saliva, tears, and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions, and the risk of infection is negligible.
    Transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of the uninfected partner. Infectivity seems to vary during the course of illness and is not constant between individuals. An undetectable plasma viral load does not necessarily indicate a low viral load in the seminal liquid or genital secretions.
    However, each 10-fold increase in the level of HIV in the blood is associated with an 81% increased rate of HIV transmission. Women are more susceptible to HIV-1 infection due to hormonal changes, vaginal microbial ecology and physiology, and a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. People who have been infected with one strain of HIV can still be infected later on in their lives by other, more virulent strains.
    Infection is unlikely in a single encounter. High rates of infection have been linked to a pattern of overlapping long-term sexual relationships. This allows the virus to quickly spread to multiple partners who in turn infect their partners. A pattern of serial monogamy or occasional casual encounters is associated with lower rates of infection
    HIV spreads readily through heterosexual sex in Africa, but less so elsewhere. One possibility being researched is that schistosomiasis, which affects up to 50 per cent of women in parts of Africa, damages the lining of the vagina.

    *_prevention;The male latex condom, if used correctly without oil-based lubricants, is the single most effective available technology to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Manufacturers recommend that oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, butter, and lard not be used with latex condoms, because they dissolve the latex, making the condoms porous. If necessary, manufacturers recommend using water-based lubricants.
    Oil-based lubricants can however be used with polyurethane condoms.
    The female condom is an alternative to the male condom and is made from polyurethane, which allows it to be used in the presence of oil-based lubricants. They are larger than male condoms and have a stiffened ring-shaped opening, and are designed to be inserted into the vagina. Current recommendations state that when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, HIV-infected mothers should avoid breast-feeding their infant. However, if this is not the case, exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first months of life and discontinued as soon as possible.

    *_Treatment ;Anti-HIV medications do not cure HIV infection and individuals taking these medications can still transmit HIV to others. Anti-HIV medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fall into four classes:
    1. Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), such as nevirappine (Viramune) and efavirenz (Sustiva), bind to and block the action of reverse transcriptase, a protein that HIV needs to reproduce.
    2. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs), such as zidovudine (Retrovir), tenofovir DF (Viread), and stavudine (Zerit), are faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make more copies of itself. When HIV uses an NRTI instead of a normal building block, reproduction of the virus is stalled.
    3. Protease Inhibitors (PIs), such as lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), disable protease, a protein that HIV needs reproduce itself.
    4. Fusion Inhibitors, such as enfuvirtide (Fuzeon ), are newer treatments that work by blocking HIV entry into cells.

  35. umniah al-amin (m) Says:

    there was mistake in typing my e_mail adress so i submit comment twice & this is the right one
    >>>>>>>>>>>>>

    AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. This is caused by the immune system being depleted of its cells by HIV. Once enough of these cells have been destroyed by HIV, the body is not capable of fighting off other bacteria and viruses as easily, particularly opportunistic infections. The word “Acquired” is included because you have to catch HIV, it doesn’t just spontaneously occur.
    do not normally develop in individuals with healthy immune systems. Most of these conditions are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites that are normally controlled by the elements of the immune system that HIV damages.
    Opportunistic infections are common in people with AIDS. HIV affects nearly every organ system.
    People with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various cancers such as Kaposi’s sarcoma, cervical cancer and cancers of the immune system known as lymphomas. Additionally, people with AIDS often have systemic symptoms of infection like fevers, sweats (particularly at night), swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss. The specific opportunistic infections that AIDS patients develop depend in part on the prevalence of these infections in the geographic area in which the patient lives.

    *_Theories; 1_Viruses closely related to HIV are found in monkeys and other non-human primates in Africa, and many scientists believe that the first humans were infected through contact with monkeys in the middle years of the 20th century.. Sometimes monkeys are eaten as food, and it’s perhaps easier to imagine contact with infected blood through a knife cut during preparation. So this is one possible explanation for the origin of HIV/AIDS.

    2_More than 20 years after the AIDS epidemic arrived in the United States, a significant proportion of African Americans embrace the theory that government scientists created the disease to control or wipe out their communities, according to a study released today by Rand Corp. and Oregon State University.

    *_Causes ; AIDS is the most severe acceleration of infection with HIV. HIV is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital organs of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells (a subset of T cells), macrophages and dendritic cells. It directly and indirectly destroys CD4+ T cells
    Once HIV has killed so many CD4+ T cells that there are fewer than 200 of these cells per microliter (µL) of blood, cellular immunity is lost. Acute HIV infection progresses over time to clinical latent HIV infection and then to early symptomatic HIV infection and later to AIDS, which is identified either on the basis of the amount of CD4+ T cells remaining in the blood, and/or the presence of certain infections, as noted above.
    In the absence of antiretroviral therapy, the median time of progression from HIV infection to AIDS is nine to ten years, and the median survival time after developing AIDS is only 9.2 months. However, the rate of clinical disease progression varies widely between individuals, from two weeks up to 20 years.
    Many factors affect the rate of progression. These include factors that influence the body’s ability to defend against HIV such as the infected person’s general immune function. Older people have weaker immune systems, and therefore have a greater risk of rapid disease progression than younger people.
    Poor access to health care and the existence of coexisting infections such as tuberculosis also may predispose people to faster disease progression. The infected person’s genetic inheritance plays an important role and some people are resistant to certain strains of HIV. An example of this is people with the homozygous CCR5-Δ32 variation are resistant to infection with certain strains of HIV. HIV is genetically variable and exists as different strains, which cause different rates of clinical disease progression.

    *_The three main transmission routes of HIV are sexual contact, exposure to infected body fluids or tissues, and from mother to fetus or child during perinatal period. It is possible to find HIV in the saliva, tears, and urine of infected individuals, but there are no recorded cases of infection by these secretions, and the risk of infection is negligible.
    Transmission of HIV depends on the infectiousness of the index case and the susceptibility of the uninfected partner. Infectivity seems to vary during the course of illness and is not constant between individuals. An undetectable plasma viral load does not necessarily indicate a low viral load in the seminal liquid or genital secretions.
    However, each 10-fold increase in the level of HIV in the blood is associated with an 81% increased rate of HIV transmission. Women are more susceptible to HIV-1 infection due to hormonal changes, vaginal microbial ecology and physiology, and a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases. People who have been infected with one strain of HIV can still be infected later on in their lives by other, more virulent strains.
    Infection is unlikely in a single encounter. High rates of infection have been linked to a pattern of overlapping long-term sexual relationships. This allows the virus to quickly spread to multiple partners who in turn infect their partners. A pattern of serial monogamy or occasional casual encounters is associated with lower rates of infection
    HIV spreads readily through heterosexual sex in Africa, but less so elsewhere. One possibility being researched is that schistosomiasis, which affects up to 50 per cent of women in parts of Africa, damages the lining of the vagina.

    *_prevention;The male latex condom, if used correctly without oil-based lubricants, is the single most effective available technology to reduce the sexual transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. Manufacturers recommend that oil-based lubricants such as petroleum jelly, butter, and lard not be used with latex condoms, because they dissolve the latex, making the condoms porous. If necessary, manufacturers recommend using water-based lubricants.
    Oil-based lubricants can however be used with polyurethane condoms.
    The female condom is an alternative to the male condom and is made from polyurethane, which allows it to be used in the presence of oil-based lubricants. They are larger than male condoms and have a stiffened ring-shaped opening, and are designed to be inserted into the vagina. Current recommendations state that when replacement feeding is acceptable, feasible, affordable, sustainable and safe, HIV-infected mothers should avoid breast-feeding their infant. However, if this is not the case, exclusive breast-feeding is recommended during the first months of life and discontinued as soon as possible.

    *_Treatment ;Anti-HIV medications do not cure HIV infection and individuals taking these medications can still transmit HIV to others. Anti-HIV medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fall into four classes:
    1. Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), such as nevirappine (Viramune) and efavirenz (Sustiva), bind to and block the action of reverse transcriptase, a protein that HIV needs to reproduce.
    2. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs), such as zidovudine (Retrovir), tenofovir DF (Viread), and stavudine (Zerit), are faulty versions of building blocks that HIV needs to make more copies of itself. When HIV uses an NRTI instead of a normal building block, reproduction of the virus is stalled.
    3. Protease Inhibitors (PIs), such as lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), disable protease, a protein that HIV needs reproduce itself.
    4. Fusion Inhibitors, such as enfuvirtide (Fuzeon ), are newer treatments that work by blocking HIV entry into cells.

  36. mohammed(m) Says:

    aids

  37. mohmmed salih [m} Says:

    AIDS
    isabbreviate ofaguired Emmuro deficiency syrdrome a infected haman the casatie agant is HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    History of disease:
    the illness was first described in 1981. AIDS has become a wordwide epidemic also is one of the most important puplic health problems wolrd wide at thwe start of the 21st centery
    Classificantion of hiv/aids :- there are two distinct types of humman aids hiv the two types are distinguished on the basis of genome organizition and and phyrogegenetic (evoluionnary)relation ships with other primate tentiriruses
    ORIGIN OF AIDS:_
    hiv in hummans origineted from cross -speicies infections by sirnian viruses in rural africa ,probably due to direct humman contact with in infected primate blood .current evidence is that the prianmate countr parts of hiv and hiv-2 wre transmitted to humman in on multiple fa least seven diffrent occasions
    CLincal finding :_
    symptoms of acute HIV infection are non specific and include simple fatigue,rash,haedache,nausea,and might sweat,AIDS ischaracterized by prononced suppression of the immune system and devlopment of awide variety of sever upportunistic infection or unusual neoplasms .themore serious symptoms in adults often preceded by aprodrome (diarrhea and windling ) that can include fatigue malaise ,weightloss,fever ,shortness of breath ,chronic diarrhea,white patches on the tongue (hairy leukoplakia ,oral Candidiasis) ,and lymphadenopathy.Disease symptoms in the gastrointestinal tract from the esophagous to the Colon are amajor cause of debility with to treatment
    LAB Diagnosis :_
    Evidence of infection by HIV can be detected in three ways :(1)virus isolation (2)serologic determination of antiviral antibodies and (3)measurment of viral nuclic acid or antigens.
    PREVENTION ,TREATMENT ,AND CONTROL:
    (A)Antiviral drugs :Agrowing number of anti viral drugs are approved for treatment of HIV infection .therapy with combinations of anti viral drugs refferred to ashighly active anti retroviral Therapy(HAART)
    Zidovudine(azidothymidineAZT)can significantly reduse the transmission of HIV form mother to infant
    (B)Vaccine aganist HIV :_
    aSafe and effective vaccine offers the best hope of controlling the wordwide AIDSepidemic .viral vaccines are typically preventive ,ie,given to uninfected indivduals to prevent eirther infection or disease .

  38. ismailosman Says:

    Aids is disease of the human immune system caused by the human immuneficiency virus ‘HIV’.The condition progressivly reduces the effectivenss of the immune system and leaves individulas susceptible to opportunistis infections and tumors.
    ”HIV” is transmitted through direct contact of amucous membrane
    or the bloodstream with abodily fluid containing ”HIV” such as blood,semen,vaginal fluid,preseminal fluid and best milk.
    Genetic research indicates that ”HIV” originated in west-central africa during the late nineteenth or early twenntieth century.
    Sexual transmission occurs with the contact between sexual secretions of one person with the rectal, genital or oral mucous membranes of another.
    The virus, entering through which ever route, acts primarily on the following cells:
    lymphoreticular system.
    CD4+ T.Helper cells.
    Macrophages.
    monocytes.
    B-lymphocytes.

  39. ENFAL ALI AL-AMEEN Says:

    HEMOGLOBIN STRUCTURE, FUNCTION and SYNTHESIS

    Hemoproteins:
    Hemoproteins are a group of specialized proteins that contain heme as a tightly bound prosthetic group. Hemoproteins are widely distributed in nature. Examples of their importance in humans and animals are listed in table 1.

  40. Nosiba kamal Says:

    Write an assignment on:
    The difficulties you encounter in developing your English( no less than 50 words)
    I have been studying English for more than 10 years but I haven’t managed to develop my skills in English, particularly speaking and writing.

  41. musab mohammed ali Says:

    Firstly thank you for giving me this chance to talk about this tobic.
    There is many difficult face me to indevolping my English langua. I can spesk English language very well more than other skills exe(write,vocablary…etc). Becouse that I want to improve my English language by write amassege in English and speaking in English to other people and i make English society in my old college.
    Finally the English language it very important becouse that we shoud to laren English language it language of age,so we can improve our English language by many way so take your choise and do it.

  42. Nosiba kamal Says:

    FRIST: Teaching:
    teachingEnglish as a foreign language refers to teaching English to students whose first language is not English. TEFL usually occurs in the student’s own country, either within the state school system, or privately, e.g., in an after-hours language school or with a tutor. TEFL teachers may be native or non-native speakers of English.
    This article describes English teaching by native Anglophones working outside their own country, a small subset of English taught worldwide. To learn about other aspects of English teaching, see English language learning and teaching, which explains methodology and context, and explains abbreviations (e.g., the difference between ESL and EFL, or TESOL as a subject and an organization). For information on foreign language teaching in general, see language education and second language acquisition.
    SCOND: Reading:
    TEFL that uses literature aimed at children and teenagers is rising in popularity. Youth-oriented literature offers simpler material (“simplified readers” are produced by major publishers), and often provides a more conversational style than literature for adults. Children’s literature in particular sometimes provides subtle cues to pronunciation, through rhyming and other word play. One method for using these books is the multiple-pass technique. The instructor reads the book, pausing often to explain certain words and concepts. On the second pass, the instructor reads the book completely through without stopping
    FAINALY: Blended learning:
    Blended learning is a combination of face-to-face teaching and online interactions (also known as CALL or computer-assisted language learning), achieved through a virtual learning environment .

  43. nosiba Says:

    Hi,teacher.How are you ?Iam in faculty of medical labolatories.I like this course very much .
    The course is very useful ,enjoyable and easy ,althought you have good explain ,you must talk in arabic while you are explaining , because we are new studants and some meaning we do not know it .

  44. Saja Sirelktem Elsayed Says:

    The English language is important for read especially medical students because the book and references to English Language
    English Language is not basic Language in Sudan so,
    The majority of Sudanese face a lot problems in learning English And the problems that meet me is to speak because I do not speak with people in English and all time IListen. And writing, 8 years studied English at school however, wrote about 5 essay and 15 Compositions
    English language is a universal language everyone finds a solution to Problem facing

  45. eman esmail abdulrazig Says:

    one of the most issues of our times is the growing interest in the role of women in various spheres . after many years of male dominated specially in the muslim word , why the sudden interest ? is it because in a earnest attempt for equality or is it because in a me feel theatened in way that they never have before? a danger in this exercise exist because”famous”women will always be outnumbered by “famous”men in the huge proportions and far from centerin women it ultimately reinforces the centering of men. i was brought up to believe that to cotribute to any heritage it needed both men and women.
    no contribution could be possible without one or the other .
    the “quraan” and the “ahadith” both present a belief of men and women as complementry in all functions and thus when given the title “the role of women in our intellectual heritage”….

  46. abdalla mohmmed osman Says:

    My English Difficulties

    My English is not very bad . But I have a problem in
    Grammar and write . I speak well. And I understand
    Most words. I can also answer most questions.
    So I need to improve my writing, and grammar.
    I want to speak English more fluently .

    But my English Depend on keeping a lot of word from movies , books , enternet , dictionary , TV , and anything I can find .

    For this I need your help.

    abdallah mohmmed osman

  47. samah soluman mohmd Says:

    The English language is very gool and enporatan for aen parson sapshly in medicine .
    I am have problems in red and raet because i am listen mor than speak
    english and i can mak word that anthr rethon because in the school we dont hav a reding lison .
    English language is language for the world and we mast now it.

  48. duaa tagelser Says:

    English is international languge.it is important instuding,working,getting ajob,dealwithforgienpeople…etc.thatmean itis important in everything .when Iwas child ididn’t knowthat but now iknow.andilove it very much,really iwant to speak English fluently,iwant to improve my vocabulary.

  49. Nahla hamed Ibrahim Says:

    English Language is very difficult, this is because the ministry of education from the beginning does not take care about it ,this means that some subjects should be learned by English and the teacher must be more qualified on it as a result the students became very weak at this language in all the levels of education , even at the University level. In the university as it is known the lectures are given by English language at the same time books from which we search is in English so the students are facing understanding problems. In my view this problem to be solved the ministry of education should concentrate on the elementary and junior levels just by publishing new curriculums which enable the student to understand it without any problem.

  50. Nahla hamed Ibrahim Says:

    English Language is very difficult, this is because the ministry of education from the beginning does not take care about it ,this means that some subjects should be learned by English and the teacher must be more qualified on it as a result the students became very weak at this language in all the levels of education , even at the University level. In the university as it is known the lectures are given by English language at the same time books from which we search is in English so the students are facing understanding problems. In my view this problem to be solved the ministry of education should concentrate on the elementary and junior levels just by publishing new curriculums which enable the student to understand it without any problem.

  51. maha dawood Says:

    The biggest problem most people facing in learning any new language is their own fear. They worry that they will not say thing correctly or that they will look stupid so they do not talk at all. Do not do this. The fastest way to learn anything is to do it again and again until you get it right. Like any thing, learning English requires practice. Do not let a little fear stop you from getting what you want.

  52. ehssan Says:

    English language in this days is very important because enter some studying. Some students are thinking English language very difficult but very easy. Need English language for skills and efforts speak, read and listen by continuo. Any student able speaks and writes English language because imposipol but need some efforts. So must try.

  53. Sara Salih Says:

    as a matter of fact .English is very important language for any person
    most people think English is very difficult .because leaner English
    require write anew word several Times also make up a sentence
    for anew word in addition we shoud try to use anew word three times in the
    next 24 hours .more over we shoud find something strange about the spelling .above of
    all this if you have,t determination and desire you can not learn it

  54. Ekrima Abdallah Abdrahim Says:

    English one of most important language in the world. Cause the different language it’s very important to get good communication between the people. Almost of education system must be included at least one or more language. And the world become like small village so we need it to deal with people(travel). We know we are Arabian people so English become as the second language. The main difficult about how to get conference cause in learning of any language talking it’s important. Financial problem for the poor people. Culture of some people which they are very strict to their own language.

  55. mohammed ahmed alahdab Says:

    Every body seems to agree that Engllish language is an International language spoken almost by two third of the World ,more over no one denies that English language is playing an increasing important role in evaluation and development of Human life.
    It was born in england.It has been came to Sudan since very long time and became It has been stadent in primary and secandary schools and Unevirsities
    In both primary and secandary schools Ths students do not care about English just they want to pass in the exam.So there are alotof problems will face them if they enter Unevirsities stadies subject by English.
    We have neve stadient Litrature book whom helps to anderstand it in secandary school and oures school life genarely.
    The studests suffer very much in country live from it. One the other hand we must not escapefrom this problem and fae it by way deffrence to reatch for success.
    Un fortunatly finaly Admenistry of Education has entered litrature book after went to unevirsity. the head will contenue on searsh even fluant speaking know wells god like England .
    There are many ways to learn English and any thing sush as school and so on but( the best way ) taught selfe . Alot of intelegants depend for selfe
    Asking ours lord to easy all the material for student specialy who stadient in nile college .
    Bithfull wishes

  56. amel alhiber mohammed Says:

    English the language of science. Students in the medical field they have to learn English. With regard to my problems in learning are largely at the speaking and listening started to solve it 8 years ago. I heard a lot of films and radio programs. In the end, Ihope to make friends and learn Language invites fluent

    • amel alhiber mohammed Says:

      English is the language of science. Students in the medical field have to learn English. With regard to my problems in learning are largely at the speaking and listening .Istarted to solve it 8 years ago. I heard a lot of films and radio programs. In the end, Ihope to make friends and learn Language invites fluent.

  57. shathalia adam Says:

    the English language is very important and necessary for universities studants. by the english we could life with people in different world.
    most of people considered the english is a share language. however they practies it continaly .
    the english is mojor proplem faces sudanese studant because they could not study it early althought it very important must be learned in primary school in first day as basic subject .
    also Iam faces major proplem yet I could write , read and express the english but i should not speak it very quiclly and fluent .
    i intent to over take this proplem by patience , determination and practise listening to english programs.

  58. Fadia Azhary Says:

    Skip to content

    Difficulties with English language
    People may find English a challenge because
    • it is not their first language
    • they have a specific learning difficulty such as dyslexia
    • their previous education developed only basic English skills
    • they are more used to speaking than writing in English
    • they learned a style of English writing that does not fit the UK’s usual academic style
    • they have a combination of these difficulties.
    Types of language problem
    Language problems often fall into two main categories.
    Difficulties in understanding can cause particular problems when
    • reading the style of language used in a course
    • listening to others, either in group sessions or telephone tutorials
    • trying to respond to spoken or written questions
    • encountering colloquialisms, idioms and cultural references (for example from current television programmes) that are used in online forums or other discussions
    • making use of examples used in explanations.
    Difficulties in writing for others to read may relate particularly to
    • punctuation or the use of paragraphs
    • making mistakes with verb tenses, or with subject and verb agreement
    • using the wrong word or putting words in the wrong order
    • errors in spelling
    • inability to write at length in order to construct essays or reports
    • using a style which does not suit UK academic work.
    .

  59. eman esmail abdulrazig Says:

    english is very important in this life. the first i didnot know how i talk english. sometimes i ask how the american people speak english, and how talk and learn . english is not important in the arabic world because the important language ia arabic . so the first english is so hard to me .
    now we are speak english because now iam not find eny problem to english

  60. Fatima Elagbash Says:

    In my opinion English language is second language after Arabic language we need it in university study, to award high study and also need it in work. But I see hindrance effective in improving my English .One of them we started in my primary school from fifth class, this mean we have started learning very late.
    In my family surroundings Arabic language preferable from English language like we have been listen news by Arabic read books and news paper by Arabic, etc we don’t enough English literature. For all reason mention above the result some problems in my English language in speaking and writing. Regarding speaking I cannot, speak by English with any person also I cannot write any subject by English.

  61. fatima Says:

    The englih language it,s vary important but some people .Gedoa Assa in the writing and speaking english . badly off the people anxiously after words contribute in groth the skills and idea .through ward orrive high standord ,

  62. RAZAN MOHAMED Says:

    the English language its an important language because it easy known and easy talk among the people . currently considered an recognizable language in the world .IWAS taking English language since i was in the childhood era.
    the English language is important for us as student for the interpretation of the medical books . There for my conclusion the English language is important for us for our studies an communication .

  63. Nabdha yaseen atta el mnan Says:

    English is the most usage language in the world. Because it is a very easy language. Yet, some people have problems in developing and using it on every day life. I have such a problem. One of the reasons that I red and listen three times more than I speak. Beside that the Sudanese people or most of them are hardly speak English. So this does not encourage me to talk to any one in English and improve my skill. In addition I do not try to talk even to my self and that is a big problem. we should improve our English no matter what. specially the medical fielders so that they could deal with their books and references.

  64. Norah Abdulqayyum Khader Farah Says:

    Difficulties encountered in the development of the English language:
    I find great difficulty in writing on the computer in English . I find difficulty in conversation in English . I find some difficulty in translating some of the words . Unfamiliarity with the language words . Lack of knowledge of the basics of the rules by which English . I find it difficult to read the piece quickly

  65. sharifah taha abdullah Says:

    English language is abeautiful science.That make the world conturies to communicate together and share their custome and science and married to understand and to have the bigger ideas and knowledge and to send the message to the other people who didnot know about this science.But with all these good and few words.Ihave a big problem that ican t speak english good.Even in the home itry to say small words but ifeel an aloser when speaking.So ihope to make my language better and easy to use.

  66. mahmoud shadoul Says:

    English is not difficult to learn but in my opinion I think speaking in English is the most problem that face my in my live . I can read , listen and understand a lot of things that in English . But when I want to speak or explain any thing in English I cannot do it and I don’t know what is the reason exactly . I think this is the lonely problem that face my in developing my English language .

  67. bakry Ibrahim Says:

    My problem in English is Ican،tmake setences the majorty of studant like me.
    the sconed problem is tenses but It is simple and Ican solve it.
    About sudanese studant here in sudan Ithink spain books not enough to learn them all skills reading only.

  68. Christina Hddad Says:

    I have big problems in english Language for example translation, talk and write.

  69. marwa osman Says:

    english languge is basic in all studies for this it become very important. some sudanese think that english is very diffcul becuse they speak arabic but can begin step by step to learn it.thereare many chance to learn like [at insititute ,with private teacher at home or by reading books] i,advice all student to learn it

  70. نضال محمود أيوب Says:

    الطالبة: نضال محمود أيوب

    السنة الاولى

    English is the most important languages in the world a first language in terms of trading volumes and transaction dating to different cultures, traditions and assets between different peoples and their importance in the Secretariat is to facilitate the operations of the procedure and to deal smooth and the provision of transactions raised in politics, sports, Althaglvp and art and all known areas and access to the junction of the middle with the understanding and identification purposes to the other party to that is considered the main language in our lives because all of the world adopted as a first language.

  71. ragdaglal Says:

    As we know English for English language , in the Sudan we face many problems Specially in those are class ified as biggeners .
    first problem in writing most pupils influence by learning Arabic language the begin from right to left Also most of the try to find equine lent for letters in Arabic language .
    pupils in their early age find difficult to pronounce some certain letters like .
    on there head there is enough qualified teacher because there is enough institute to make enough trainees
    some words English are silent .
    there is alack of com mum cation in English duet our traditional (shy)
    afraid make ins mistake

  72. Samer Alaaeldin Mustafa Says:

    I often can’t use many vocabulary words and have trouble trying to understand native speakers like British. I also can’t spell long words very well either. I have trouble speaking in a proper accent. I usually try to find a translator. I seriously hope this course will help improve my language and use of speech because we may need to use more English for Medicine.

  73. eslam mohamed Says:

    I have been studing english for:english language is very important and necessery in my work and auniversal language .
    I devolping the english with the reading more stories and saved the word s daily I wish spoken english fluently.

  74. mujtabaali (mis) Says:

    It is said that the property was governed by state and very broad. This day the king wanted to do

    Long road trip. During his return found that his feet r] because of the swollen

    Walking in off-road, he issued a decree to cover all

    The streets of the Kingdom of the skin, but one of his advisers said was the opinion of the best

    Is the work of a small piece of skin under the feet of the king only. This was the beginning of the

    Shoe soles.

  75. Ahmad Omar Says:

    `English is the international language of tody. its the first language in many countries. its also the official language in many other countries.Today knowing English is necessity. it enables speak to foreigners and tourists. When we know English. We can read English book and references. moreover. it helps us to speak when we travel abroad. Businessmen use English at their meetings. Scientists write their articles in English.

  76. Fatima Magzoub Mohammed Says:

    I have studied english language for 7 years just in basic and secondary school.
    My scores during these years are excellent.
    Inspit of i find difficult in conversation with this language.
    My english vocabulary it is not rish so i am in need of more pratice in it.
    I see that this course of english language will give us a chance to improve more our english.
    Help me…..

  77. Nosiba kamal Says:

    The difficulties encounter in developing my English language speaking,writing.I wont learn the basics of English because I need it for my studies so much and in my life .

  78. Ekrima Abdallah Abdrahim Says:

    This boy who writing about him he was born in 1991 in Omdurman. He has a father, mother, tow sisters, and one brother. His father work as a teacher in primary school and his mother too. He takes his education in African console till the secondary school and complete his education in different high schools. When he was growing up he wish become a doctor then he faced so many difficult to make his dream come true. He decided to leave his country to complete his education in any other country then he went to study P.pharm in India. After one year only he returned to Sudan because his mother she’s going sick. When he returned he joined with first year students in Nile college to begin study medicine-this just begging to make his dream come true-. In his family he still a lovely boy. This boy called Ekrima Abdallah he live with a life difficult when he was a little boy this difficult made him stronger than any time go. I never seen little boy like him talking like a mature man.

  79. wala makki Says:

    YOU CANT’S AVOID YOUR FATE

    once there was man who drove to work every day.
    one morning as he was turning a corner , the steering wheel fell off and He crashed into a bed shop.
    fortunately .he landed on a soft matters, so he wasn’t hurt.
    the next day the man was to afraid to drive his car , so he caught the bus suddenly, the bus driver fell asleep and the bus crashed into a bus stop. the man wasn’t hurt but he was frightened.

    the following morning the man decided to walk to work. he didn’t want to be late, so he started running .

    he was running so fast that he couldn’t see where he was going. As he was crossing the road , he heard a noise . he turned around and saw a bus coming towards him . the man fell flat on the ground . incredibly, the bus went right over him and he got up unhurt . By that time the man was terrified . he ran all the way back home and shut the door.

    The following day the man woke up and decided to stay in his bed forever . because he felt safer there . At that moment a picture Above the man’s bed fell off the wall and hit him on the head . he died.

  80. mohammed ahmed alahdab Says:

    learn from Nature
    There are King lived in small countery .He used to strog man , have good realationship with nieghbours and beautefull .He had visited them and so them also .The people was poor and didnot learn but had wisedom .change situation Ater afew years becauce they discovered many things whom found such as petrol,nature gas ,gold and ather materials in there countery. when nieghbours listened this speach werenot happy but they were anger .If told right,they will form dinger for there nations and peacefull. They were faired and there collegtive then decided to enter this countery and join it for us cnfine the king but He was living in happyness and didnot know them enamy. At one day in early morning three counteries without any reason they began fighting queclly . they did not find any diffecalts from king,s soldires .The king got away to cave faily from enamy and die .When he was sitting on land he saw spiderwant to reach to it,s home. It moved up and felled down in the first time and did not give up and return then felled down and so on even seccessed at seven time .It taught him many lessons and gave him hope and go owt anger from him self and said him Isall not give up even they go to their counteriies. He told either role my countery or die then joint to ermy twince and permitted and here appered thier wisedom. He collegtived mony , bought gans and stimulates. Aftere many fight he successed. (And the earth will shine wiith the qloryof its Lord)

  81. DUAATAG ELSER Says:

    THE GIRLS GODGIVESkidsforsomepeopleanddoesnt forotherandgivesboys forsomedndgirlsforothers. onceupontime there was aman hisname was alihemarriedagirl her namewas mona.aliwanted aboy from mona.monahadababy but shewas agirl.afteryears mona and alihad five childrenandthey weregirls after the fifth girl came ali left them alone.mona was very sadbut she promised herself that she would takecare of them.sheworked very hardin house keeping toget moneyforher daughtresandmake themlearnandlive.thegirls grew up,thefirstgirlwas adoctorandthesecond girlwas alayer thethirdgirlwasanurse,theforthgirlwas ateacherandthe lastwas an engineer.inadaytheir father came toseethemand surprisedthat mona madeagood girls.when he saw his daughtershe criedand said tothemthat hemarried another womenandshe hadthree boysbut they were bad boys.heasked them to forgive himand his daughthers forgave him.my aim from this story that wehavetoeccpet what god give us,and belivein desttiny.bythewaywearefivegirlsinthe familyandourdadandmam love us andcare about usandwelovethem andrespect them.

  82. MOHAMMED ABASS Says:

    REAL I HAVE A BIG PROBLEM IN ENGLISH.BUT I WONT LEARN ENGLISH TO HELPING ME IN ALL MY LIFE . I THINK AFTER ONE MONTH I”LL SPEAK AND WRITE ENGLISH VERY GOOD . BECAUSE I HAVE REAL LEARN TO ENGLISH .

  83. baraaa awad elkareem Says:

    English language is very beautiful and easy ,evry one can learn and speak it since of that any one face him trouble or difficult when he learn it.
    Iwill talk about troubl it face me ,ilike english language very much and ihope to use it in all minutes in my day but they are some difficlts .
    Ilike in english summury and grammer but i have problem in weiting ,Icant found new word from me.
    My big trouble in english its speaking its realy big problem
    iwish and am sure iwill found solution for my problem in nile college and in this course with my teachers .

  84. mohamme ahmed Says:

    بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
    i am Mohammed Ahmed Elkhedir 18 years old my religion is Muslim and my nationality is Sundanese i was born in kassla state in the east of sudan my father work a doctor and i have two sisters and one brother i live in kassla i have my elementary certificate from alahlya basic school and my secondary certificate in aleatissam secondary school and i graduate in 2009 ; since i was child my hope was to be a doctor in the future and thanks to god just now i can prove this dream now am in the first semester in medicine faculty in the Nile college and this is my first assignment .
    faithfull mohammed ahmed
    khartoum bahry- alssafya

  85. samah soluman mohmd Says:

    Ajourmy to the college of medicien the univrsit of ciro; on 20 octover 2010 the student of the nilecollege of medicien mede ajourmy to the college of medicien of cairo univesity writ ‘pof’’ a.mohmd .the student’s took the sudanes airline blane and cairo airport the ,pof/. Met the students and the want to hotle .in the mornien they want to the college and the groop uisted the lecture hatl of the labs of the college they spnt tow weefks in the end of the jourmy student uisited the jourmy had been abeautiful and scientific journy.

  86. Suzan Abd Alla Says:

    Ineed developing my English language .becouse my English is simple.

    The difficultis that face me are bad grammer and I cannot able to write composition .
    In last days I think to enter English Corss to storgn my language .
    In addition to speake English language without any problem In pronounce.

  87. eman esmail abdulrazig Says:

    english is the most important foreign language of the world most arabs believe . in arabic language in the key to all of it has spoken of arab origin . we become divided to two sections as sudanese first interested to speake and talk especially enlish and the second is that arabic is basically . i like to do sort type who likes communicate in english . but i had many difficulties for example no people speak english fluently but today i think t have become good at speaking and writing english..

  88. eman esmail abdulrazig Says:

    English is the most important foreign language of the world most arabs believe .In arabic language in the key to all of it has spoken of arab origin . We become divided to two sections as sudanese first interested to speake and talk especially enlish and the second is that arabic is basically .I like to do sort type who likes communicate in english . But i had many difficulties for example no people speak english fluently but today i think t have become good at speaking and writing english..

  89. ragdaglal Says:

    AN 80 years old man was sitting on the sofa along with his 45years old highly educatedson.Suddenlyle acrow perched on thier The father asked his son, ”Whatisthis? “The son replied’ Itis acrows ,after few minutes,the fathers asked his son the 2nd time,”What is this?”
    The son said fathers ,Ihave just now told you its crows after alittle While,the old father again asked his son the 3nd time,”What is this?”At this time some expression of irritation was felt in the sons to new Whe he said to his father with rebuff .Its acrow.Alittle after again asked his sons tone
    When he said to his father with are buff.Its after the father again asked his son the 4th times ”What is this ?” This time the son shoulded at his fathers,”Why do you keep asking me the same question again and again ,although Ihave told you so many times it is acrow.Are you hot able to understand
    this alittle later the father went to his romm and came back with an old at tereddiary,Which he had maintained since his son was born.On opening apage,he asked his son to read that page.When the son read it,the follwing word were written in the diary.To aday my little son aged three was sitting
    with me on the sofa,When acrow was sitting on the my son asked me 23times What it was,and Ireplied to him all 23times that it was acrow.Ihugged him lovingly each time he asked me the same question again and again for 23 times .Ididnot at all feel irritated I rather felt aff ection for my
    innocent child If your parents old age ,donot are palse them or look at them asaburden but speak to them agracious word be cool,obedient,hamble and kind to them .Be considerate to your parents from today say this alound,Iwant to see my parents happy for ever since Iwas a little child.
    They have always showered their solfless loving on me . They crossed all mountains and valleys ************** with out seeing the storm and heat to make me aperson present table in the society today.

    with me on the sofa,When acrow was sitting

    AN 80 years old man was sitting on the sofa along with his 45years old highly educatedson.Suddenlyle acrow perched on thier The father asked his son, ”Whatisthis? “The son replied’ Itis acrows ,after few minutes,the fathers asked his son the 2nd time,”What is this?”
    The son said fathers ,Ihave just now told you its crows after alittle While,the old father again asked his son the 3nd time,”What is this?”At this time some expression of irritation was felt in the sons to new Whe he said to his father with rebuff .Its acrow.Alittle after again asked his sons tone
    When he said to his father with are buff.Its after the father again asked his son the 4th times ”What is this ?” This time the son shoulded at his fathers,”Why do you keep asking me the same question again and again ,although Ihave told you so many times it is acrow.Are you hot able to understand
    this alittle later the father went to his romm and came back with an old at tereddiary,Which he had maintained since his son was born.On opening apage,he asked his son to read that page.When the son read it,the follwing word were written in the diary.To aday my little son aged three was sitting
    with me on the sofa,When acrow was sitting on the my son asked me 23times What it was,and Ireplied to him all 23times that it was acrow.Ihugged him lovingly each time he asked me the same question again and again for 23 times .Ididnot at all feel irritated I rather felt aff ection for my
    innocent child If your parents old age ,donot are palse them or look at them asaburden but speak to them agracious word be cool,obedient,hamble and kind to them .Be considerate to your parents from today say this alound,Iwant to see my parents happy for ever since Iwas a little child.
    They have always showered their solfless loving on me . They crossed all mountains and valleys ************** with out seeing the storm and heat to make me aperson present table in the society today.

    with me on the sofa,When acrow was sitting

    AN 80 years old man was sitting on the sofa along with his 45years old highly educatedson.Suddenlyle acrow perched on thier The father asked his son, ”Whatisthis? “The son replied’ Itis acrows ,after few minutes,the fathers asked his son the 2nd time,”What is this?”
    The son said fathers ,Ihave just now told you its crows after alittle While,the old father again asked his son the 3nd time,”What is this?”At this time some expression of irritation was felt in the sons to new Whe he said to his father with rebuff .Its acrow.Alittle after again asked his sons tone
    When he said to his father with are buff.Its after the father again asked his son the 4th times ”What is this ?” This time the son shoulded at his fathers,”Why do you keep asking me the same question again and again ,although Ihave told you so many times it is acrow.Are you hot able to understand
    this alittle later the father went to his romm and came back with an old at tereddiary,Which he had maintained since his son was born.On opening apage,he asked his son to read that page.When the son read it,the follwing word were written in the diary.To aday my little son aged three was sitting
    with me on the sofa,When acrow was sitting on the my son asked me 23times What it was,and Ireplied to him all 23times that it was acrow.Ihugged him lovingly each time he asked me the same question again and again for 23 times .Ididnot at all feel irritated I rather felt aff ection for my
    innocent child If your parents old age ,donot are palse them or look at them asaburden but speak to them agracious word be cool,obedient,hamble and kind to them .Be considerate to your parents from today say this alound,Iwant to see my parents happy for ever since Iwas a little child.
    They have always showered their solfless loving on me . They crossed all mountains and valleys ************** with out seeing the storm and heat to make me aperson present table in the society today.

    with me on the sofa,When acrow was sitting

    AN 80 years old man was sitting on the sofa along with his 45years old highly educated.Sudetenland a crow perched on their The father asked his son, ”WhatIS this? “The son replied’ It is a crows ,after few minutes,the fathers asked his son the 2nd time,”What is this?”
    The son said fathers ,I have just now told you its crows after a little While,the old father again asked his son the 3nd time,”What is this?”At this time some expression of irritation was felt in the sons to new Wye he said to his father with rebuff .Its a crow.A little after again asked his sons tone
    When he said to his father with are buff.Its after the father again asked his son the 4th times ”What is this ?” This time the son should ed at his fathers,”Why do you keep asking me the same question again and again ,although I have told you so many times it is acrow.Are you hot able to understand
    this a little later the father went to his room and came back with an old at tertiary,Which he had maintained since his son was born.On opening a page,he asked his son to read that page.When the son read it,the following word were written in the diary.To a day my little son aged three was sitting
    with me on the sofa,When a crow was sitting on the my son asked me 23times What it was,and I replied to him all 23times that it was ac row.I hugged him lovingly each time he asked me the same question again and again for 23 times . Didn’t; at all feel irritated I rather felt affection for my
    innocent child If your parents old age ,don’t are pales them or look at them burden but speak to them a gracious word be cool,obedient,humble and kind to them .Be considerate to your parents from today say this aloud,I want to see my parents happy for ever since I was a little child.
    They have always showered their souffles loving on me . They crossed all mountains and valleys ************** with out seeing the storm and heat to make me a person present table in the society today.

  90. Banan eltayeb Says:

    I face some difficulties in English language .The biggest one is writing. Always I have mistakes special in grammar .I can not read quickly. My knowledge about English words is not enough; therefore most words are unknown to me. I am trying seriously as I can to improve my stander at English.

  91. Banan eltayeb Says:

    Story about good doctor
    Doctor is human job characterized by being responsibility because we deal with people whom give us themselves so they deal with trust. For this reason doctor must be characterized by good behavior not in work but also in routine life as in home and community.

  92. Fadia Azhary Says:

    Adam is a ten year old boy who was forced to leave his village and live in khartoum. his village was attacked in war and there was great killing beside the death of his family so he escaped to khartoum without knowing to whom he is going to go.
    when he reached khartoum he was homeless without any shelter or food and nobody cared about him besides he was non educated and didnt have any skills so he began to struggle for life by doing odd jobs like cleaning cars,shining shoes and selling water and day by day he earned little money and began with great efforts to educate himself and gain skills. so after these great efforts he finally found a better job as an office assistant and this was a slow but good progress in life.

  93. maha dawood Says:

    Once upon a time, there was a king who had a very wide country under his control. One day, he wanted to make a long trip at his country. When getting back, he found out that his feet were swollen due to rough roads. Therefore, he issued a decree to cover all the streets of the kingdom with skin but one of his counselors told him a better idea, which was to make a small piece of skin under the king’s feet only and that was the beginning of shoes sole.
    If you want to be happy, don’t try to change the world unless you try to change yourself as as you can

  94. amel alhiber mohammed Says:

    Our prophet Solomon and the thief
    It said that ” A man came to Solomon (Peace be upon him) and Complained to him that his hens was stolen .
    Solomon invited all people in the village and said ” what about you ? a thief from you stole his neighbor and forget a feather in his head .The thief but his hand in his head and he was known.
    that lead to saying ( the thief has feather in his head)” .
    It means that a thief always anxious .

  95. maisoon habib Says:

    One day, a man named James was walking his dog Sparky. He noticed the sun was going down and ran home as fast as he could. This town and all others got very dark at night.
    When James got home, he got out his paper punches of a giant circle and a small circle. He then punched one giant circle to let in light.
    James realized it was still much too dark out. He then punched out millions of little circles. They let in light.
    The world was brighter with all of these holes in it! James needed a name for his creations. His friend Luna said, “My name is Luna which means Moon, why don’t you call your giant creation the Moon.”
    James agreed and the giant circle became the Moon.
    Now, he had one more problem, he didn’t know what to call his small creations. He thought he was doomed for good and was about to give up when he thought, “Wait a minute, I’ll call my friend Professor Starr!”
    Professor Starr was one of James’s best friends since they were no older than five years old. Prafessor Starr listened to James’s problem and said, “I am your best friend, correct?”
    “That’s right,” James replied.
    Professor said,”I am also the smartest person you know, right?”
    James said,”You’re right again! I’ll call these little holes in the sky the stars after you Professor Starr!”
    James took great pride in what he had done, and he lived happily ever after.

  96. tasnem elrashed Says:

    THE FOX

    One day in the forest the fox and his friend goat walking in way. than suddenly see the tiger he look very angry and dangers .the fox say what is mater .i am very hungry but now I have dealfish meal the tiger say .goat is fear and say we are death .fox say don’t be cowardly .the goat say who he is very strong. The fox thought of meant and say we will be happy if we been your lunch but what about morals meal .who that the tiger say .fox say there in the river you cattle of bucks .are you say troth the tiger say .fox say yeas you can look about your self and you don’t fiend her you will be back and teak your dealfish meal .the tiger say you are very kind and run at the river .goat say I don’t bluff that we are life who do that .the fox say my dear friend sometime the mind stronger than muscles .

  97. Saja Sirelktem Elsayed Says:

    Once upon time were a man and his son. They lived in a village .one day they went to city to buy a donkey .they bought and came back by it. They rode on back. The people talk about them “poor donkey””. His son came down and went. The people said “the son was yang and d doesn’t go by foot “The man came down and the son rode. The people talk “the man is old and don’t went by foot “the man came down and both of them went by foot. The people said” they were crazing donkey and went by foot” finally ,the man was very angry.Talk the son to sell a donkey and came back the village.

  98. ahmed mohammed eshaj Says:

    The importance of time
    This story is taken from the experience of one of the students while studying at a university, which then realized the importance of time, which went forever and make it lose a lot.
    Hama was a superior student in his studies and achieved the best grades in all subjects that have been accepted at a university and the verify part of his dreams and through the beginning of the future.
    The start of the way hard was review the lessons in the day and Aiwgel today’s lesson to another time that he met the owners of the evil, and Jalshm and became uninterested in his studies and had accumulated a business, duties and scored at the end of his study on the degree to Atmcnh get a good job and lost because of the time spent with the owners bad most valuable things and then realized the importance of time of the wasting.
    Man does not realize the importance of time to when going through such one of these tests, so care must be taken to avoid falling into such experiences and knowledge of the importance of time after it is gone

  99. shathalia adam Says:

    The human always meet some specialist but the don’t know who the best or who the worst, because he don’t know nature of people, also he is unbalanced until he be live who the best from first meeting .
    In the past in Basic school in the my friend. I wanted spend all the with her and help her in hugger or smaller problem also I think she bring to me pleasure- smile and happiness .
    Actually we are worth leave with together for ever.
    While I am upset + disappointed she is sitting all the time be side me.
    The big problem in this story I didn’t know what was she intent but the silly question in this story is what she carry in her cardio.
    Before the school examination when I was very tired from studding and revision, I was very sick .
    In this time Raised she is cut any visiting and telephone from me ands spreader my secrets and in difficult time she couldn’t rub my sadness .
    Finally I confessed for fact this behavior is unfit for friend wanted helping them friends but think it is signs of hatred, also when I was asking her any question she was ignoring me .
    After along argumentative she admitted for her mistakes, then she always doing the bad events because she hate me until reflects she is best in the class no any body like her.
    She called a worst friend I hope healing for all people covered a lot of examination and many benefits considered very important .
    In the last I proud for beautiful Sudanese adverb such as (the friend in need is friend in deed ) .

    Shathaliaadam@yahoo.com
    Mobile No. 0917273010

  100. Sara Salih Says:

    A drugs addiction is very dangerous and harmful with health it has so
    many effects to community its spread among the youth.
    I know some one his name is Ali he is a taxi driver and married to
    a good lady.
    He has two boys and two girls.his family is very happy unfortunately
    Ali made a friend ship with a bad fellows.They took drugs and did
    bad things ,one day they invited Ali to a party and gave Ali drugs
    but Ali refused by so many means they encouraged him Ali took
    drugs and gradually became an addict and neglected his work.So his
    family as a result of thin had no money,so children left school and
    his wife worked in houses to earn money for children .
    Beside that Ali strike his wife every night because she refused to
    give him money to sell the drugs,the wife decided leaved the house
    After a week she heard her husband died.

  101. Mohammed Fath ALrhman Says:

    A blind man sitting on the steps of a building and taking his hat between his feet and a sign that read:
    ‘I am blind, please help me’.
    Passed by a man and stop the ads Baloamy to see that the hat does not contain only a few cents more coins in it.
    Without asking the blind to take his portrait and wrote down the words again and returned the place and went on his way ..
    Note the blind that his hat was full of bills and coins, we know that something has changed and realized that what he heard
    Of writing is that change, he asked a bystander what was written was the following:
    ‘We are in the spring but I can not see the beauty’.

    Not Sailk when things do not go as it should

    • Mohammed Fath ALrhman Says:

      A blind man sitting on the steps of a building and taking his hat between his feet and a sign that read:
      ‘I am blind, please help me’.
      Passed by a man and stop the ads Baloamy to see that the hat does not contain only a few cents more coins in it.
      Without asking the blind to take his portrait and wrote down the words again and returned the place and went on his way ..
      Note the blind that his hat was full of bills and coins, we know that something has changed and realized that what he heard
      Of writing is that change, he asked a bystander what was written was the following:
      ‘We are in the spring but I can not see the beauty’.

      Not Sailk when things do not go as it should

  102. Nedal mhamah Says:

    On days while I was on my way back to the house the vehicle was speeding and suddenly and faced a leg problem there is a vehicle on the track, tried to bypass but came vehicle from behind at high speed and difficult for him to drift and Asthma in the place where I sit Aharon was a terrible accident I have seen death Ban my eyes until they arrived to the house I was afraid that I die

  103. mahmoud ahmed mohammed farah shadoul Says:

    Once upon a time there was a princess that loved a bird but it wasn’t just a bird. It was a man but he was magically turned to a bird and he told her about his story. He asked her if she want him to return a man and she said to him sure I want that but how ?
    He told her if she want that she must told all people she knows that she loves a bird after that he will become a real man and he will return to his body . “Now I had to travel and if you miss me and you want to see me you must do what I told you” said the bird. He said good bye and left her .
    After he left she was so sad and she decided to tell all the world that she loved a bird and when she wanted to said she think that all people will say this girls is mad and she didn’t do any thing and didn’t tell any person about her love . Day after day and after a year she missed her love and she wanted to see him and she swore that she must tell all the world and she did it . After a few seconds a handsome man appear in front of her face but with a beautiful women . he came close to her and she was very happy and unfortunately he said to her you said that but you said it too late and I have married this women and he left again but this time he said to her bye bye forever .
    And my advice to you don’t wait for the perfect moment to say what you are feeling but say what do you want to say and it will be your perfect moment .

  104. fatima elagbash Says:

    ِAli was engineer. He was working in a big company .He was working by diligently and loyalty. After 25 years of work he had submitted his resignation but your manager had refused that and asked him to build a house. After that he was build a house and he used un quality material in the last the house completed but it was not good. After that your manager gave him the key of the house and said to him you were excellent engineer and did your work loyal thus this your present.

  105. somie hassan Says:

    howdoyou do in how areyoy busines is your in lheg you to remem her me to her library english in book ld lilk level loud good meeng lisho help ast gain exercise o,unde erst and thoughot though iden,ew.and english Hell, mag, iproduce,self,

  106. Fatma Eltyb Says:

    Loyalty in the noble profession
    One day there was a doctor in the clinic for a specialized in hypnosis who is going to the owners of mental illness to see mental illness and in that day came to a boy and his girl and the house is innocent does not know the reason for coming and his boy to the doctor, leaving the house to wait and told her I want to you can work the process of hypnosis for the girl that overseas said to him, you are infected with myself said it does not even want to know Mapdakhlha in terms of telling him that this reason is not convincing to do this process if the girl know it said it does not and you are a Atakbreha said it will not Tell her but do not do this process, gave her a very significant amount of money and this amount is a bribe was rejected Dr. bribery and after she saw the house she wanted to tell her, but I remembered her promise to the boy that they did not tell her, but said that the boy can not be trusted on anything they tell you, this Dr. has However, the duty of a great respected profession, has made the boy to the police and did their duty towards him

  107. nahlahamed Says:

    5th presessional you are expeceted to do much more reading at university than at school or college here

  108. nahlahamed Says:

    YOU

  109. Norah Abdulqayyum Khader Farah Says:

    part A : Answer the following questions :

    # the above is simply a story found on the internet that its origins are unknown . why do you think people write such stories ? give an explanation ….
    To take the sermon and the lesson

    # why would the students think the mayonnaise jar was full when it was filled with golf balls ?
    It just goes to show you that no matter how full your life may seem

    # what does each of the following represent in the story : golf balls , pebbles, sand and coffee ?
    pebbles, sand and coffee

    # what do you think the overall meaning of the story is ?
    that no matter how full your life may seem, there’s always room for a couple of cups of coffee with a friend.

    # what is your personal opinion of the story ?
    Story aims to link the fiction to reality

    part B : writing your own story with meaning
    Piece of Cake…….
    Sometimes we ask ourselves: What did I do to deserve this?
    Why does God let these things happen to me?
    Here is the explanation…
    A daughter tells her mother how everything is going wrong for her;
    She probably failed her Math exam,
    …Her boyfriend just dumped her..for her best friend
    In times so sad, a good mother knows just the thing to cheer up her daughter… “I make a delicious cake.” In that moment themother hugged her daughter and walked her to the kitchen, while her daughter attempted to smile.
    While the mother prepared the utensils and ingredients, her daughter sat across from her at the counter. Her mother asks,
    “Sweetheart, would you like a piece of cake?”
    Her daughter replies, “Sure, mom, you know how I love cake.”
    “Alright…” the mother
    said, “Drink some of this cooking oil.” Shocked, the daughter responded,
    “What?!? No way!!!
    “How about a couple of raw eggs?”
    To this the daughter responded, “Are you kidding?”
    “How about a little flour?” “No, mom, I’ll be sick!”
    The mother responded,
    “All of these things are uncooked and taste bad, but if you put them together…
    …They make a delicious cake!”
    God works the same way. When we ask ourselves why does he make us go through these difficult times, we don’t realize the what/where these events may bring us. Only He knows and he will not let us fall.
    We don’t need to settle for the raw ingredients, trust in Him… And see something fantastic come about!
    God loves us so much…
    He send us flowers every spring…
    …He makes the sun rise every morning…
    .. And anytime you need to talk…He is there to listen!
    He can live anywhere in the universe…
    But He chooses to live in your heart!

  110. Abdalla Mohmmed Osman Says:

    Part A: answer the following question

    1.The above is simple a story found on the internet that its origins are unknown. Why do you think people write such stories? Give an explanation.
    Because they feel that the time passes without trying to be a benefit.

    2.Why would the student think the mayonnaise jar was full when it was filled with golf balls?
    Because they did not see the space between the golf ball.

    3.What does each of the following represent in the story: golf balls, pebbles, sand and coffee?
    * Golf balls: mean very important things in our lives and that should give priority such as prayer, study.
    * Pebbles: medium important things in our lives such as watching TV, sit on the Internet.
    * Sand and coffee: things that have a slight impact on our lives.

    4.What do you think the overall meaning of the story is?
    How to arrange the time and its importance and I think it is very important.

    5.What is your personal opinion of the story?
    It is a good story and useful.

    Part B: writing your own story with meaning?

    My life

    •sport:
    I loved and mastered the sport of football, table tennis, volleyball and swimming.
    And my place in the football stadium is the heart of the defense, volleyball court and plays anywhere.

    •school:
    Studied primary school in Hittin Elementary for 6 years, then Integument to the middle stage at the School of Bilal bin rabah for a period of 3 years, but for the secondary stage was studied by the first grade and second secondary classes in secondary Jafar the pilot, and third year secondary school in high school Tarif, was Takrt from all academic levels with excellent grade and by not less than 90%, and the credit for that goes back to Sobhan.

    •home:
    Our house like other houses of Muslims in the world.

    •family:
    My family consists of my father and my mother; I have one brother and two sisters and I am biggest among them.

    •friends:
    All my friend in Saudi Arabia, but I hope to find many friends here in the Sudan.

    The end

  111. Sharifah Taha Abdallah Says:

    1.The above is simple a story found on the internet that its origins are unknown. Why do you think people write such stories? Give an explanation.
    Because they feel that the time passes without trying to be a benefit.

    2.Why would the student think the mayonnaise jar was full when it was filled with golf balls?
    Because they did not see the space between the golf ball.

    3.What does each of the following represent in the story: golf balls, pebbles, sand and coffee?
    Golf balls: mean very important things in our lives and that should give priority . Pebbles: medium important things in our lives such as watching TV, sit on the Internet.
    Sand and coffee: things that have a slight impact on our lives.

    4.What do you think the overall meaning of the story is?
    idont no.

    5.What is your personal opinion of the story?
    Its very nice and beauteful.
    ***************************

    ** My family**
    MY family is very beutifule.Ihave three brothers.My big brother studing in india jologya,and small brother studing in higscool.Fathar job is makanik car,and mother job teacher.Istuding in nile college medecin.In summer family go to sudan and go to dongola.I go to my freind in afra mool,pizza corna,and ice-41.Now i studing in univercity in sudan.My family live in saudi arabia.You have aflat is very nice,three rooms,diningroom,livingroom,bedroom,bathroom,kitchen,and bighool.
    In sudan have abig house in arkaweet.Ilove my family so much,and imiss u soo much.

  112. mohammed Says:

    my answer the following questions:

    1_to give us the hope to live our laife.

    2_be couse the jar it realy filld with golf balls it seem that if yor look it.

    3_the golf balls,coffee,sand,and pebbles that it is realy.

    4_the story represont the life in meny diffrent but after all it be the life we life.

    5_i think this stoy it very imaessing.

  113. Ahmad Omar Says:

    1 because they feel that the time passes. 2 it just goes to show you that no matter how full your life my seem. Friendship with god we can come to know friendship with god. not only through salvation in jesus chirst. but in our day by day experience. we must start. of course by coming to chirst and receiving his salvation. but can also learn to walk with god in friendship in relationship. this is established not only on the basis that you been born again. but because you come to walk with him.

  114. Sohail Kamal Says:

    English originated from the fusion of languages and dialects, now collectively termed Old English, which were brought to the eastern coast of Great Britain by Germanic (Anglo-Saxon) settlers by the 5th century – with the word “English” being derived from the name of the Angles. A significant number of English words are constructed based on roots from Latin, because Latin in some form was the lingua franca of the Christian Church and of European intellectual life.

  115. Nosiba kamal hamid Says:

    the story boy
    There was a boy who was always losing his temper. His father gave him a bag full of nails and said to him, “My son, I want you to hammer a nail into our garden fence every time you need to direct your anger against something and you lose your temper.”

    So the son started to follow his father’s advice. On the first day he hammered in 37 nails, but getting the nails into the fence was not easy, so he started trying to control himself when he got angry. As the days went by, he was hammering in less nails, and within weeks he was able to control himself and was able to refrain from getting angry and from hammering nails. He came to his father and told him what he had achieved. His father was happy with his efforts and said to him: “But now, my son, you have to take out a nail for every day that you do not get angry.”

    The son started to take out the nails for each day that he did not get angry, until there were no nails left in the fence.

    He came to his father and told him what he had achieved. His father took him to the fence and said, “My son, you have done well, but look at these holes in the fence. This fence will never be the same again.” Then he added: “When you say things in a state of anger, they leave marks like these holes on the hearts of others. You can stab a person and withdraw the knife but it doesn’t matter how many times you say ‘I’m sorry,’ because the wound will remain

  116. eman esmail abdulrazig Says:

    Once there was aking of the country was the daugter of the king like people poor town shoe maker works in and not king knows that her daughter loves shoe maker . The daughter come out every day from early morning place without one sees .One day she brings together the shoe maker , assistant king see her, he faster to tell king. King command this person so that you cannot see it . the daughter is so sad .One day the king disease on treatment faiture disease doctors. shoe marker said:i can address the king of this disease it is king to bringing shoe marker fatah and illustration of disease the king said
    ; ask what you want him to marry your dauhter , king agreed to marry … from here we conclude that we cannot judge people by their appearnce only

  117. nahlahamed Says:

    Muna was alazy studant. she always left today,s work from tomorrow ,your mather had often advised him tochange this had habits but she dont care about advis. After some weeks the examination it was begining as aresult Muna became very weak at this examination. she is learned dose not left today,s work for tomorrow and listen to advises

  118. christina hddad Says:

    prince as soon as make dance go home hidden but how the prince got agood servant once there was avery great and rich prince.he lived in a great houseand hundreds of bags full of gold and jewels.but he had nogood servants.his servants stole his gold.as soon as he got anew servant he began to steal.so the prince sent for an old man. as soon as he came the prince said “iam not happy.my servants steal every thing in house can you get me agood servant?”ithink ican”answered the old man” please make all your new servants come here”

  119. ragda galal Says:

    nile \

  120. fatima gassmalla Says:

    It was the month of january . Iarrived at lowood school at night . Aservant took me up some stairs and into abig bed room . There were many beds in the room . The girls in the beds were asleep . the servant took me to an empty bed . I put on my night clothes and i got into bed . soon , I was asleep too .
    Iwork up very early . Aloud was ringing . the bed room was dar kand cold . Iwatched the other girls .they washed in cold water they dressed quickly . there was aplin brown dress next tomy bed . And there was apir of ugly , heavy shoes . I washed quickly . Then put on my new clothes . Iwas very hungry . I fouowed the other girls down the stairs . We sat down atv loug tableg in alarge dinig toon . Out feed was terrible . The food is bad again , one of the girls said .
    stand up ! ateacher shouted . don,t talk !
    We stood up . We did not speek . We walked in to abig school room and we sat down . ther were about eighty girls in the school room – And there were four class .
    I was in the first class . Four teachers came in to the room and we beg an our lessons . the lessonswere not in teresting . first , We reed same pages in abook . Thenour teacher asked us ques tions about those pages . After four hours , We went out side . It was very cold . Very soon . Abell rang . lessons started agin . Came in to the school room . the head teachers name was miss Templer . Mr. Brockle hurst was with her . We all stood up . I stood be hind an older girl .
    I did not want Mr> Brockle hurst to see me .
    Mr. Brockle hurts walked slowly round the room . Every body was very quiet . And then idropped my book ! Mr. Brocklehurst stopped walking . He looked me
    Ah! the new girl , He said .Come here , janeEyra! then he poindted at jane Eyre , every body ! Mr. Brockle hurst said . this child is bad . she is aliar . She will be punished ! miss temple ! teacher!
    Girls !Do not talk To this child . Then he spoke to meagain . jane Eyre – yuo must stand on that chair for two hours . he said – yuo are abad girl!
    Do not talk to thirs child . than he spoke to me again jane eyre , Yuo must stand on that chair for two hours he said , Yuo are cabad girl ! That evening .I cried and agood pupil ,jane she said .and yuo are not abad cried . But miss Temple waskind tome . Yuo are agood pupil . jane .She said and yuo are not abad girl . Iam your friend jane .Thank yuo miss Temple , I said . lowood school was in an . un healthy place . the building were wet and cold .
    Me . Brocke hurst owned the school . He was arich man . But he did not buy warm clothes forus .evry body hated him . In the spring msny of girl became sick . some of the leftthe school. they never came back . Many of the girls died . that spring was aterrible time . We had no lessons . Miss Temple and the other teacher took care of the sick pupils . Mr. Brockle hurst had to buy better food forus . And he hadwarm clothes for us . Mr.Brockle hurst never came to the school . The next year , lowood school moved to abetter place . It was ahealthier place – there were new school rooms , new bed rooms and anew dining room. the newbuildings were brigh and clean . The teacher swere happy .After that , I was happpy at lowood school too.
    I was apupil at lowood sghool for six years . Then I became aTeacher . I wase Tea cherat the school for tow years . But I never returned to Gates head Hall . and the Reeds never wrote tome.
    fatima gassmalla(N)

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